A recent study published in the April 2013 issue of the International Journal of Obesity examined whether people would lose more weight on their own (sticking to a prescribed calorie goal) or by eating pre-packaged diet foods that totaled the same number of daily calories. The story was picked up by news outlets with eye-catching headlines like "Packaged diet foods may spur more weight loss," (Reuters).
Sounds pretty good, right? We thought so, too. So we dug a little deeper to bring out the real truth. According to the study, subjects who followed the 1,000-calorie Medifast 5 & 1 plan for 26 weeks (which involves eating 5 packaged diet products per day and 1 self-prepared meal of lean protein and veggies) lost an average of 16.5 pounds, while the control group, advised to simply adhere to a 1,000-calorie "food-based diet," lost about half that with an average loss of 8.4 pounds.
To the untrained eye, it may look like a no-brainer: This pre-packaged diet food plan really works! It must have some kind of special magical nutrition formula or food combination that provides such great results! It's also easy!
Not so fast.
Reuter's lead paragraph is accurate in stating that "In a head-to-head comparison with a traditional diet, people who stuck to a diet of portion-controlled packaged foods lost almost twice as much weight as those who only got advice on how to trim calories." But neither the article, nor the study, explore the reasons why this outcome happened, what may have been flawed about the study, or the fact that the final weight loss of both groups was quite small: 2/3 pound per week for the Medifast group and 1/3 a pound for the control group.
Here are some questions that immediately spring to my mind—and why you should consider these results with a large chunk of salt:
I've followed similar diet plans in the past, and paid all kinds of money for these pre-packaged diet foods. Was it easier to stick with a plan that took all decision making out of the equation? Yes! Having to plan and think about what to eat, having to make a good decision when faced with a vending machine or restaurant menu is a lot harder. But later I learned that I don't need special, expensive diet foods to reach the same goal. I began creating my own meal plans, with the help of a dietitian, and followed these plans of real, whole foods to a "T." I was able to not only learn more about changing my habits, but still avoid the temptation of other foods by knowing I had "a plan" of what to eat.
- Were the members of the "reduced-energy, food-based" diet group given any information or tools for tracking calories? You don't need to be a weight loss scientist to know that it will be easier to meet a strict 1,000-calorie-a-day limit if you're eating prepackaged meal replacements that take the guesswork out of what to eat. In real life, even using a great calorie calculator, estimating and tracking calories is hard—and making decisions about food meal after meal, snack after snack is challenging.
But on the flipside, if you are just given food to eat, and you never truly learn how to make those hard decisions and stick to a healthy diet—any weight loss you earned will be short lived. The second the diet is over, you still don't know how to eat in a way that will sustain your weight loss. You revert back to old habits and the weight creeps back on. It sure didn't make the headline, but after an additional 26 weeks had passed, and subjects were no longer following either diet, the Medifast group members had regained an average of 6.5 pounds, while the control group had regained just 4.4. This shows that those who had to learn it on their own actually fared better in the end. Perhaps a better headline for the story may have been, "Regular dieters who keep weight off longer than people who eat pre-packaged diet foods."
- Nutrition and weight loss studies are hard because the rarely create real-word scenarios like the ones people face day to day when trying to lose weight. For one, study participants are generally paid for their participation in a weight loss study, which is a major incentive to stick with any plan that people don't have in real life. In this study, all the participants on the Medifast plan were provided food FOR FREE as well. This never happens in real life, and the cost of such a plan (about $300 a month) is a major barrier to people being able to start or stick with a program like that.
- Who funded the study? Turns out Medifast, a company that sells pre-packed diet foods and provided them for participants, funded the whole thing. In science as in life we call this a conflict of interest. When a corporation funds a study and signs the paychecks of the researchers conducting it, it's very difficult for anyone involved to be objective. Not only do the researchers have an incentive to give their "employer" the results they want (to ensure the study continues, along with their pay), but that lack of objectivity often trickles all the way down to how the researchers create the study. This study was designed to make Medifast come out on top, by pitting it against another "diet" that really didn't have a chance at winning: telling people to eat less, but not providing them with much help or resources to do so.
I would be more interested in seeing a study that compared these packaged diet foods (which, let's face it, are highly processed and lack fresh food ingredients) to other programs that provide all the food in perfectly controlled portions. And, as even this study showed, what tends to happen when any very controlled diet ends is that the dieter regains at least some of the lost weight. It seems like a more sustainable plan would be to learn healthy eating habits and incorporate them into your life over time until they become routine. A big part of the problem with "diets" of any kind is that there is an implied end date.
I actually spent one year eating almost exactly the same thing every day. It sounds a little crazy, but it removed all sources of temptation by limiting what I shopped for at the grocery store and what came into my house. I didn't have to make any decisions about what to eat, which freed me to focus on improving my workouts (and living my life). If you struggle with making food decisions, this might be a good experiment to try for a few weeks to see if it helps you. I guarantee whatever you eat will taste 1000x better than any pre-packaged or powdered diet plan "food!"
Certainly, different things work for different people and many people—including our readers—have probably used plans like the pre-packaged foods discussed here with success. But no matter what plan you choose to follow to lose weight, one thing is certain: If you can't follow that plan forever, your weight loss will be short lived. That's why it's called a lifestyle change. That's why it can be hard and why so many people struggle with losing weight. But when you truly learn it and live it, you'll be amazed at the results!
What do you think? Have you ever had success with a diet that provided pre-packaged foods? Is it something you would ever try?