Fitness Articles

A Runner's Guide to Injury Prevention

How Runners Can Prevent and Treat Common Injuries

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In the short-term, ice and anti-inflammatories can reduce pain and swelling. Longer term, rest from running and other activities that put stress on the foot and heel are recommended, which is why swimming would be a good option for cardio activity during this time. Using a tennis or golf ball to massage the bottom of the foot can also provide relief, as can stretches. Here are two stretches to try:
  1. Seated Plantar Fascia Stretch: Sit with your ankle on the opposite knee. Grasp your toes and pull them back gently until you feel a stretch in the arch of your foot. Hold for 20-30 seconds, then release and repeat. Do this 5 times on each side, and a few times each day.
  2. Standing Plantar Fascia Stretch: Put a book (or board) on the floor a few feet from the wall. Place the balls of your feet on the book with your heels in the air. With a straight knee, lean into the wall, keeping your hips and legs in a straight line. Hold for 10 seconds, release and repeat. Do this exercise 5 times, a few times each day.
Runner's Knee
Commonly referred to as "runner's knee," patellofemoral pain syndrome is described as pain under and around the kneecap. The pain is often worse when you're active or sitting for long periods of time. It can also worsen when squatting or descending stairs.

Rest is one of the first lines of defense against runner's knee. Either cutting back on your mileage or taking a break from running by cross training instead can help with the pain. Stretching and strengthening the muscles around the kneecap can also prevent future problems. Here are 11 stretches and strengthening exercises that can help with knee stability.

General Injury Prevention
As you might have noticed, these types of injuries have common causes, treatments and plans for prevention. In general, there are several things you can do to be proactive and help keep your body healthy and pain free as a runner.
  • Wear the right shoes. It is important to make sure your shoes fit properly, so take the time to go to a specialty running store and get fitted for a pair that meets your needs. You might pay a little more, but typically the staff has the expertise needed to find the right shoe for you.
  • Cross train. Running is a high-impact activity that puts a lot of stress on your body. Although it's a great workout, incorporating other cardio activities (walking, biking, aerobics, swimming, dancing, etc.) into your routine gives your body a break and prevents overuse injuries.
  • Progress slowly. It's great to be enthusiastic, but it's also important to give your body time to adapt to the demands of running. As a general rule, don't increase your weekly mileage by more than 10% at a time. Doing too much too soon dramatically increases your risk of injury.
  • Strength train and stretch regularly. Running alone isn't enough to keep your body healthy and balanced in every aspect. Both strength training and stretching will help reduce your risk of injury and also improve your performance. If your muscles are strong and relaxed, you're much likely to do better when race day arrives!
  • Rest. Although it seems like the more you do, the better off you'll be, that's not always the case. Your body needs time to rest and recover. Rest is important and over-exercising has negative consequences for your health just as inactivity does.
Understanding a running injury is the key to finding an effective treatment and developing a plan to prevent future problems. Even if you've never experienced any of the aches and pains discussed above, it's always a good idea to be proactive. This ensures your road to the finish line will be a smooth one!
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About The Author

Jen Mueller Jen Mueller
Jen received her master's degree in health promotion and education from the University of Cincinnati. A mom and avid marathon runner, she is a certified personal trainer, certified health coach and advanced health & fitness specialist. See all of Jen's articles.

Member Comments

  • I have had shin splints and plantar fasciitis...both took a long time to heal. I got my shin splints from walking fast all the time to keep up with others (I am short) and it got better with Motrin/ice/stretc
    hing (took a while though). I got plantar fasciitis while I was training for a half marathon and needed to change out my shoes and apparently my feet didn't like the new ones so I had to stop jogging altogether (several weeks)...then I went back to my old shoes until after the run event. I am horrible with stretching...don'
    t put much time into it since I don't have the patience for it but I am going to try to add strength training and stretching into my routine. Thank you for the ideas. - 2/10/2014 12:27:50 PM
  • I developed plantar fasciitis and ( I think) runner's knee, long before I ever started on SP ( work as a cleaner, so I'm on my feet and up and down stairs all day). The foot stretch described here, does work, but you have to keep at it, at least 3 times a day, for a long time. I also found that wearing Skechers Shape ups helped, as the arch support presses right up into your arch, plus, the shape of them also takes the pressure off your heel, which is what becomes agony with PF. The runner's knee only really started to go away once I'd lost 20+ pounds with SP. I've read that every pound of your weight amounts to 3 lbs on your knees, more if you're going up stairs. So now I've taken 66 pounds off my knees! - 11/7/2012 3:26:15 PM
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