Danger, danger! Do alarm bells sound in your head at the sight of a carbohydrate-rich food? If eaten, do feelings of guilt and remorse swell up inside? Low-carb, slow-carb, no-carb…with the plethora of diets touting the evils of carbohydrates, it's no wonder that folks are petrified of potatoes and leery of anything that contains wheat. It's true that foods that contain carbohydrates are abundant in our society and it is easy to overindulge.|
But guess what? Carbs can be your friend. In fact, eliminating them could actually be harmful to your long-term health, and you may be missing out on some of their slimming effects. Here's the catch, though: You must know which ones to forgo and which to welcome back on your plate.
Before you decide to embrace the carb-free way to be, get the facts on how carbohydrates affect your life and goals.
How Carbohydrates Actually Work
Not only are carbohydrates found in many foods—fruits, vegetables, beans, dairy products, foods made from grain products, sugar, honey, molasses, corn syrup—but they're also the body's ideal fuel for most functions. They supply the body with the energy needed for the proper functioning of the muscles, brain and central nervous system. In fact, the preferred source of energy for the human brain comes from carbs.
To create energy, carbohydrates go through a transformative digestion process:
Chemically speaking, there are three types of carbohydrates:
- The body converts digestible (non-fiber) carbohydrates into glucose. The glucose then enters the bloodstream. Insulin is secreted from the pancreas, which allows the glucose to enter the body's cells to be used as fuel. Some glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles for future use, like fueling a long workout. If there is extra glucose, the body will store it as fat.
- The speed at which carbohydrate foods are digested and utilized by the body, as well as the increase in blood sugar level and insulin production, depends on many factors. These factors include the following: the type and amount of carbohydrate eaten, the amount of fiber contained in the food, other foods that are eaten with the meal or snack, physical activity, stress and certain medical conditions.
- Simple Carbohydrates are composed of one or two sugar units and are found in both natural (strawberries) and refined (white table sugar) forms.
- Complex Carbohydrates (also referred to as starch) are made up of many sugar units and are found in both natural (brown rice) and refined (white bread) forms.
- Non-Digestible Carbohydrates (also called fiber). The body is unable to breakdown fiber for absorption. As such, it is not an energy source for the body but does promote health in many other ways.
All Carbs Are Not Created Equal
Simple carbs, complex carbs and fiber are found in many foods. Some of these foods provide important nutrients that promote health; let's call these foods "smart carbs." Others, "shoddy carbs," provide calories with little to no nutritional value.
Smart Carb Foods:
Shoddy Carb Foods:
- Fruits contain primarily simple carbohydrates but also valuable vitamins, minerals, fiber and water.
- Vegetables contain varying amounts of simple and complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water.
- Legumes such as beans, peas, soybeans, lentils and legumes contain complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, minerals and protein.
- Milk products such as fluid milk and yogurt contain simple carbohydrates along with protein, calcium and other nutrients.
- Whole-grain products contain complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, minerals and protein. The amounts vary depending on the type of grain used and the amount of processing.
- Examples of calorie-containing sweeteners include white sugar, brown sugar, syrups, honey and molasses. Sprinkling these added sugars into coffee or using them as a major ingredient in sweet treats and beverages can quickly add unwanted carbs and calories.
- Refined-grain products contain complex carbohydrates, but much less fiber, vitamins and minerals when compared to their whole-grain form. The nutrient amounts vary depending on the type of grain used and the amount of processing.
- French fries, breaded and fried vegetables, and potato chips are examples of over-processing that turns that nutrient-rich vegetable into a high-calorie, nutrient-lacking creation.
How the Body Responds to a Very Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet
When there is a severe deficit of carbohydrates, the body has several immediate reactions, one of which is that it starts using protein as a fuel source. Ketones, a by-product of incomplete fat breakdown, begin to accumulate in the blood. As a result, there is a loss of energy, as well as nausea, headaches, bad breath, dehydration and constipation. Long term usage can bring about nutrient deficiencies, malnutrition and increased risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, cancers, diabetes, gout and kidney stones.
There are many "how's" that need to be explored before you decide if a low-carb diet is for you: How low will your carb intake be? How long do you plan on sticking to the diet? How will it impact other medical conditions? How happy will you be? General guidelines are usually based on the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes for carbohydrates, but you can change the carbohydrate range based on recommendations from your healthcare provider, if needed.
The Million-Dollar Question
How do you get the nutrient-boosting benefits from carbohydrates, while still losing weight? Use the three rules of the "KISS Me Plan": Keep It So Simple for Me for carbohydrate control.
Rule #1: Know which carbohydrate-containing foods are "smart" and which are "shoddy."
Rule #2: For accuracy, weigh and measure all carbohydrate-containing foods using standard food portion sizes.
Rule #3: Include the correct number of carb-containing food servings in your eating plan.
Listed below are the food groups which contain carbohydrates, along with the suggested number of servings based on a 1,200- to 1,600-calorie plan for weight loss. Adjustments should be made for higher-calorie ranges.
Whole Grains and Starchy Vegetables: 4 to 5 servings daily (approximately 15 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
Refined Grains: No more than 1 to 2 servings daily, preferably 0 servings (approximately 15 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
- 1/2 cup corn, peas, potato, sweet potato
- 1 small potato, sweet potato
- 1/2 cup legumes, lentils, beans (black, garbanzo, kidney, lima, navy, pinto, soybean)
- 1/2 cup cooked brown rice, whole-grain pasta, oatmeal
- ¾ to 1 cup whole-grain cereal
- 1 slice whole-wheat bread
- 6 whole-grain crackers
- 3 cups air-popped popcorn
Keep in mind that this number counts toward the whole grains and starchy vegetables total for the day.
Fruit: 2 to 3 servings daily (approximately 15 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
- ½ cup cooked white rice, pasta, noodle
- 1 small flour tortilla, muffin, roll
- 1 piece of a thin crust, 12-inch pizza
- ½ small bagel, hamburger or hotdog bun
- ¾ to 1 cup refined grain cereal
- 1 slice white bread
- 6 crackers
- 20 oyster crackers
Dairy: 1 to 2 servings daily (approximately 12 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
- 1 small apple, banana, orange
- ½ cup diced peaches, pears, pineapple, fruit cocktail—fresh, frozen, canned
- 1 cup berries or cubed melon
- 17 grapes
- 2 tablespoons dried fruit
- ½ cup 100% fruit juice (limit to no more than 1 serving daily)
Non-Starchy Vegetables: 3 to 7 servings daily (approximately 5 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
- 1 cup low-fat, no added sugar yogurt
- 1 cup skim or low-fat milk
Shoddy Carbs: No more than 1 to 2 servings weekly (approximately 15-20 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
- 1/2 cup cooked, 1 cup raw or 1 cup leafy greens
- Asparagus, green beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, eggplant, onions, greens, kohlrabi, mushrooms, pep pods, peppers, radishes, spinach, summer squash, tomatoes or turnips.
- ½ cup 100 percent juice (limit to no more than one serving daily)
|Cookies, chocolate chip
|Chocolate candy kisses
|Doughnut holes, glazed
|Sugar-sweetened beverages, including soda,
fruit drinks, sweet tea, lemonade, sports drinks
Corn syrup, pancake syrup, jelly, jam
Baked cheese crackers
|1 ounce (16 chips)
1 ounce (4 twists)
1 ounce (25 crackers)
The bottom line is that you should be working to cut down on added sugar and refined grains, but should still consider all other carbs fair game. It's time to let those smart carbs back on your plate as you achieve and maintain a healthier weight.