Pregnancy Articles

Your Guide to Health Screenings

What, When and Why to Get Checked Out

You know the filter in your furnace only lasts three months before it gets clogged with cat hair, and you're diligent about getting the oil in your car changed every 3,000 miles. But do you pay attention to all the recommended tune-ups and maintenance on your most important machine-your body?

Regular checkups are keys to early detection and successful treatment of health conditions. But remembering when to get checked for what is difficult. Here's a list of basic and essential health condition screenings that you'll want to schedule with your health care providers, along with a basic explanation of why you need them.

What Who When Why
Eye Exam Everyone *About once every 2 years A trained health care provider examines your eyes for health and to determine if you need glasses or contacts.  *The American Optometric Association recommends an eye exam once every 2 years until the age of 18, once every 2-3 years between the ages of 19-40, once every 1-2 years between the ages of 41-60, and then every year after that.       
Dental Exam Everyone 2 and older Once every 6-12 months Your dentist will examine the teeth to detect tooth decay, gum disease, oral cancer, and problems with your bite. 
Blood Pressure Screening Everyone 18 and older Once every 2 years This test, which measures the pressure involved when your heart beats, is important for the detection of high blood pressure, which increases the risk for heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and kidney damage.
Pelvic Exam and Pap Test Women 18 and older (earlier if sexually active) Once a year Pelvic exams and pap tests can detect cancerous and pre-cancerous changes in the cervix. When caught early, the treatment success rate is very high. Based on many "normal" results, your health care provider may choose to screen you less often.
Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening Everyone who is sexually active Immediately if you have symptoms or annually if you have changed partners Many STIs do not have symptoms, but can lead to permanent complications if left untreated. If you are at high risk for STIs, you should get tested more frequently. For women, these tests are often performed during your annual gynecologic exam, but not automatically, so don't forget to ask.
Cholesterol Screening Everyone 20 and older Once every five years This blood test measures levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.  Based on your health history, your health care provider may recommend more or less frequent screenings.
Breast Self-Exam Women 20 and older Once a month Performing a self-breast exam raises awareness of any changes or unusual breast symptoms.  Your health care provider can instruct you on how to perform this exam effectively.
Clinical Breast Exam Women 20 and older Once every three years until age 40; once a year after 40 This manual breast exam, performed by a trained health care professional, is highly effective at detecting lumps and symptoms of breast cancer that a self-exam might miss. 
Mammogram Women 40 and older Once every 1-2 years This (and other) imaging techniques can detect potentially cancerous lumps in the breast tissue earlier than a physical examination can detect them.
Diabetes Screening Everyone 45 and older (earlier if risk is high*) Once every 3 years This test measure levels of blood glucose after fasting to check for diabetes. *People at high risk (those with high blood pressure, high cholesterol or triglycerides, obesity or a family history of diabetes) should get screened more frequently.
Colon and Rectal Cancer Screenings  Everyone 50 and older (earlier if risk is high*) Once a year Talk to your doctor to determine the best type of screening and testing schedule for you. *You're at a high risk if you have personal or family history of colon and rectal cancers, polyps or inflammatory bowel disease. 
Prostate cancer screening Men 50 and older (age 40 if risk is high) Once a year With a prostate exam and prostate-specific antigen test, your health care provider can detect prostate enlargement or high levels of prostate-specific antigen, which may indicate prostate cancer.
Bone Density Test Women 65 and older (age 40 if risk is high*) Once a year This scan measures density of the bones and can detect low bone density (osteopenia) or loss of bone mass (osteoporosis).  *You are at increased risk if you have had prior fractures, have a family history of osteoporosis, or have taken prednisone. 
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About The Author

Liza Barnes
Liza received her bachelor's degree in health promotion and education from the University of Cincinnati and is pursuing a master's degree in nurse midwifery. She is the proud mother of one daughter.
Liza Barnes Rothfuss

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