Nutrition Articles

Dealing with Hunger and Food Cravings

Eat Better and Manage Your Weight without Deprivation

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There's more to healthy eating and weight loss than simply tracking your food. How you think about food and respond to hunger, eating cues, and cravings also affect your diet and overall health.

As babies, we ate intuitively: We fussed when we were hungry and stopped eating when we were full. As we grew older, the world around us began influencing what, when and how much we chose to eat. After years of advertising, imposed meal times, cafeteria offerings, holiday meals, grandma's comfort foods, and yo-yo diets, many of us have completely lost touch with our real hunger and satiety signals. We confuse cravings with hunger and end up overeating—or emotionally eating—as a result.

But hunger and cravings are very different, and by learning to distinguish the two, you can be more satisfied with your meals and reduce your calories without feeling the urge to continue eating. Here's what you need to know to get back to your intuitive eating roots and manage your weight.

Hunger: Your Need for Food
By definition, hunger is "the painful sensation or state of weakness caused by the need of food." Simply put, hunger is a signal from your body that it needs food for energy. When you’re truly hungry, your stomach, brain, or both will give you cues to tell you to eat. Signals from your stomach may be growling, an empty, hollow feeling, or hunger pangs. Your brain may send signals such as a headache, trouble concentrating, irritability or fogginess. Some people even experience physical fatigue when they are hungry. Hunger does not go away over time—it only gets worse. And any food will satisfy your hunger and take the hunger signals away.

If you’ve fallen into the habit of ignoring hunger cues (eating when the clock says it's "lunch time" or eating when you are not even hungry), tune back in to your body. Keep a journal to track your hunger and satiety before and after eating. (You can also use the Nutrition Notes section on your Nutrition Tracker to record these sensations.) When assessing your hunger level, use the following scale to rank how your body feels in terms of hunger or fullness (also called satiety).

Hunger Level Sensations and Symptoms
1 Starving, weak, dizzy
2 Very hungry, cranky, low energy, a lot of stomach growling
3 Pretty hungry, stomach is growling a little
4 Starting to feel a little hungry
5 Satisfied, neither hungry nor full
6 A little full, pleasantly full
7 A little uncomfortable
8 Feeling stuffed
9 Very uncomfortable, stomach hurts
10 So full you feel sick


Once you begin paying attention to how you’re feeling before and after you eat, you can start to make changes in what and how much you eat according to your hunger. It’s best to eat when your hunger level is at a 3 or 4. Once you wait until you’re at a 1 or 2 and are feeling very, very hungry, you are more likely to overeat or choose less healthful foods. (Remember: Any food will quell hunger, so we often reach for whatever is easy and convenient when we're feeling desperate to eat.) At a level 3 or 4, when you’re just starting to feel some hunger signals, you can make a conscious decision to eat the right amount of healthful and tasty foods. It's important, too, to be aware of how much you eat. It's best to stop eating at level 6 before you feel uncomfortably full (7-10). Your brain registers the signals that you're full slowly, and learning to eat to satisfaction without overeating will take some attention and practice.

Another important strategy, as you become aware of your hunger signals, is to eliminate all distractions and make food the main attraction of your meal. Watching TV, reading, using the computer or paying bills while eating can reduce your ability to recognize satiety.

Appetite: Your Interest in Food
We talk a lot about appetite: "My son has a huge appetite!" or "I worked up an appetite at the gym." Appetite is not the same thing as hunger; it actually refers to an interest in food. It’s often said that someone’s appetite can override their hunger and fullness. When some people feel stressed, they could lose their appetite and choose to ignore feelings of hunger. (Others respond the opposite way, eating in response to stress or negative emotions despite a lack of hunger or strong feelings of fullness.) And how many times have you sat down to a delicious meal and continued eating even though you were experiencing sensations of fullness? That, too, is an example of appetite overriding the signals from your body. As you start becoming more aware of hunger signals, do not confuse appetite with physical signs of hunger.

Cravings: Your Desire for Specific Foods
Cravings are very different than hunger, yet somewhat similar to appetite. Look up "crave" in the dictionary and you will see "to long for; want greatly; desire eagerly." Usually, the foods you crave are not a necessity, nor do they serve a life-sustaining need. Cravings, unlike hunger signals, will change over time, even over a period of 10 minutes. They are usually triggered by emotions (stress, boredom, sadness, etc.), an attachment or fondness for a certain food, or proximity to appetizing food. Unlike hunger, where any food will quell the sensation, only one specific food will satisfy a craving.

Keep in mind that when you have a craving but are not physically hungry, you must look deeper into why that craving is there. Are you bored? Did you have a stressful day at home or work? Did doughnuts appear in the cafeteria and now all you can think about is eating one (a thought that previously hadn't even crossed your mind)? Dig into the reason behind your longing for a certain food. If it's an emotional need, deal with the emotion. If it's a proximity craving (you see appetizing food and therefore want it), try a distraction technique.

Certainly, it's important to take pleasure from food and get satisfaction from the foods you eat. Cravings are normal and have a place in a healthy balanced diet. But learning to satisfy them in a controlled manner will keep your relationship with food in balance. Constantly giving in to your cravings—or confusing them with hunger—can lead to overeating and an unbalanced diet, especially since many of the foods we crave are high in fat, salt, sugar, or a combination of the three.

This makes it even more important to stop and examine why you want to eat something. Many healthy eaters have come up with delicious and crave-worthy recipes that can satisfy their longings for a particular food without going overboard. Other times, you may simply choose to eat the food you're craving. Both situations are OK as long as you are making conscious decisions and practicing moderation.


When you stop to think about your hunger and fullness levels, your appetite and cravings (both the triggers and your response), the more in-control you'll be around food, which can help you return to an intuitive way of eating that helps you manage your weight without ever going hungry or feeling deprived. Now that's a recipe for good health and weight-management!

Selected Source(s):
Curbing Cravings video from WebMd.com

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Member Comments

  • Thanks for the information!
  • TOMATOCAFEGAL
    excellent article. Thanks.
  • Great chart. I want to print this and then journal using the ratings.
  • Very well put! A lot of knowledge in this article.
  • Very well written, laid out and informative. Thank you very much
  • Excellent article! This has really helped me gauge when I am truly hungry or just wanting food for another reason, for instance comfort. Yes, there are reasons relating to hormonal levels for appetite, but these cravings or seemingly hungry feelings are not true hunger. Of course if you are on a medicine such as prednisone where the medicine is making you feel true hunger with the physiologic feelings are real is a challenge, but at least you know the feeling you get is from medicine and not true hunger. The same would go for hormonal changes during a menstrual cycle. I believe it's our job to weed out feelings like these from true hunger. I found this article to be tremendously helpful for me. Thanks so much!
  • The best article that I have read thus far. Thank you for clarification and I will check the hungar scale before anything I eat to make sure it's hunger, not cravings...which is my biggest challenge..I like the taste, not necessarily hungry.
  • I have been having a problem with cravings these last few days, I needed to read this article, hoping to follow the advice. thanks
  • I don't have a sense of taste anymore (at all) so cravings are visually driven. Someone will ask about going out to dinner and what I have a "taste" for - and for me it's about nourishment. Unless it is a seafood place (I'm allergic to shellfish) then I don't care where I go as a rule. Note: I will not go to a pricey highly touted place if a "chef" (when did they all become chefs-most are still just cooks) will not make substitutions because it has to be plated just so. Between allergies and some distinct dislikes (Brussels sprouts and beets will NEVER pass my lips) I need to be able to substitute or at least ask that the whatever be left off my plate. Some places will just not do that.
  • Very good article. No information is going to fit into every single person's perception of how the info fits into their situation. I can look back and think; yes I do feel weak and irritated, or down right sleepy if I get too hungry. I call it running out of gas. Cars need fuel to run effectively so do people.
  • Wish someone would do research on hunger increase during a woman's menstrual cycle. It is real, it is palpable and it has distinct effects upon the woman. While meal planning is key, it might be interesting to determine which foods might be best to help curb this strong "feeling".
  • Before anyone blames themselves for just a lack of willpower, please Google info about hunger and hormones, esp. LEPTIN and GHRELIN. Or glucose & insulin levels.



  • My crave is salty, especially kettle chips. There are times I do not give into the urge and there are also those times I feel like I just got to have it. I know I would do better without especially since I sometimes end up with my ankles and legs swelling-up. I have stopped sprinkling the salt shaker on my food and I track it. But, it's hard to let two weeks go by without a chip.
  • I will allow myself a small portion if I really am craving something but not over the top. As it is, I am having a hard time reaching the base calories SP is showing I can eat but I am not starving myself - rather the opposite! My craving is usually something salty/savory rather than sweet and usually at bedtime so I just eat 4 Triscuits or saltines and that satisfies it. I've been trying to be mindful when eating and it is definitely helping!
  • LIZZYBUDDY0201
    I like the "Healthy living is a life sentence" quote.

About The Author

Sarah Haan Sarah Haan
Sarah is a registered dietitian with a bachelor's degree in dietetics. She helps individuals adopt healthy lifestyles and manage their weight. An avid exerciser and cook, Sarah likes to run, lift weights and eat good food. See all of Sarah's articles.

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