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IAMAGEMLOVER's Photo IAMAGEMLOVER Posts: 36,514
5/14/13 10:12 A

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I can't open a certificate. I see a congratulations. I click on everything and nothing opens. The only thing that opened was the exercise equation. It doesn't matter because I don't have a printer anyways.

I love SparkPeople

Today is the first day of the rest of my life.

I am responsible for my own happiness.

My name is Bonnie I live in CT ET

I went from 258 to 126 pounds and have maintained it since 12/28/12.

Too Blessed to be Stressed.






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WACFIT's Photo WACFIT Posts: 1,128
5/13/13 8:06 P

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Week 6
43,500 steps
exercise: 5 days 30-40 minutes each day

Emma, thank you for all your hard work. I really enjoyed it. I wasn't able to read as much the last 3 weeks because I was very busy helping my son prepare for his wedding which was last Saturday. The challenge did help me keep somewhat focused on my weight and fitness goals. I was able to buy a smaller dress than expected! I have come a far piece since 10 months ago when I started on Spark. I got many compliments at the wedding on well I looked and how much weight I had lost. I have a ways to go, but am headed in the right direction! So thank you for helping me on my journey.
Be blessed,
Carol

Carol/WI "Quitting is NOT an option!"



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CAMPERLIVING's Photo CAMPERLIVING SparkPoints: (44,312)
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5/13/13 7:31 A

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Friday totals, 60 minutes of exercise, 8958 steps and 11 flights of steps.
Saturday was 90 minutes of exercise, 11432 steps and 20 flights of steps.

Thanks again for this adventure. I'm off to find the Central adventure now. Hopefully I won't miss too much again!

Which came first, the tornado or the travel trailer??


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SNOWTGRR's Photo SNOWTGRR Posts: 691
5/12/13 5:04 A

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I woke up this morning just loving what we did so much I did one more excursion. I went to the Torndirrup National Park.

Torndirrup National Park is a national park in the Great Southern region of Western Australia. Torndirrup National Park has many impressive rock formations on the coast. These include the Gap, Natural Bridge and the Blowholes all shaped from the local granite.

The area is composed of three major rock type, one of these being gneiss. We learned about this type earlier in the Trek. The oldest of these was formed 1300-1600 million years ago. This rock type can be seen along the cliff walls of the Gap. The granites were formed later as the Australian Plate collided with the Antarctic Plate 1160 million years ago as molten rock rose to the surface. These granites are visible in the tors atop Stony Hill.

A large array of floral species can be found within the park including the Woolly-bush, peppermint tree, Swamp Yate, various Banksias and Karri forest. Coastal plants such as native rosemary, banjine and thick leafed fanflower are found in the heath. The park is also home to the very rare Albany Woolly-bush and the critically endangered Blue Tinsel Lily of which only a single population exists.

Adenanthos sericeus, commonly known as Woolly Bush, is a shrub native to the south coast of Western Australia. It has bright red but small and obscure flowers, and very soft, deeply divided, hairy leaves.

The Woolly Bush mostly grows as an upright, spreading shrub but occasionally takes the habit of a small tree up to 5 m tall. It has erect branches that are covered in short hairs when young, but these are lost with age. Leaves may be up to 40 mm long, and repeatedly divide by threes into from 5 to 50 narrow laciniae, circular in cross-section, with a diameter of less than 0.5 mm.

Flowers are red, and occur alone or in small groups, hidden within the foliage at the end of branches. As with most other Proteaceae, each flower is composed of a tubular perianth of four united tepals, ending in a structure called a limb; and a single pistil, the stigma of which is initially trapped inside the limb, but is released at anthesis. In the Woolly Bush, the perianth is bright red, about 28 mm long, hairy on the outside but smooth and hairless inside. The style is about 40 mm long; being much longer than the perianth, it is very sharply bent for as long as the stigma remains trapped within the limb, and then springs erect. The fruit is an oval-shaped achene about 5 mm long.

Agonis flexuosa (Peppermint Tree) is a species of tree that grows in the south west of Western Australia. It is easily the most common of the Agonis species, and is one of the most recognizable trees of Western Australia, being commonly grown in parks and on road verges in Perth.

The species is commonly known as Western Australian Peppermint, Swan River peppermint and willow myrtle for its weeping habit.

The Peppermint Tree occurs mainly as a small and busty tree, usually less than 10 metres tall, although it may grow to 15 metres. It has fibrous, black and long bark, and long, narrow, dull green leaves, with tightly clustered inflorescences of small, white flowers in the axes. It grows in a weeping habit, and looks remarkably like the weeping willow from a distance. Leaves are narrow and reach a length of 150mm. It is most readily identified by the powerful odour of peppermint emitted when the leaves are crushed or torn.

It flowers between August and December. The fruit is a hard capsule, 3 to 4 mm across, with three valves producing small seeds.

Adenanthos × cunninghamii, commonly known as Woollybush, Albany Woollybush or Prostrate Woollybush, is a hybrid shrub in the family Proteaceae. It is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia.

It has an erect and spreading habit, growing to 1.5 m in height. Young branches are covered by short white hairs, but these are lost with age. The leaves are about 25 mm long, and deeply divided into three narrow segments, each of which is typically further divided into two laciniae. Thus most leaves have 6 laciniae, though sometimes there are 8, and very rarely fewer than six. Each lacinia is about 3 mm wide, somewhat concave, with a linear margin.

The single red flowers appear in September and October and again in March. It has a similar appearance to Adenanthos sericeus, but has leaf segments that are flattened rather than cylindrical like those of A. sericeus.

Calectasia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Dasypogonaceae. They are commonly referred to as Tinsel Lilies, and are endemic to southern Australia. The Blue Tinsel Lily is a rhizomatous, clump forming, woody perennial herb growing between 0.1 m and 0.6 m high to 0.3 m wide. Blue Tinsel Lily flowers are vivid blue/purple, anthers are red and yellow.

Details of the ages of sexual maturity, life expectancy and natural mortality of this species are unknown. However, the species is known to be slow growing. The flowering period occurs from June to October. The species is believed to flower between three and five years, and presumably has a substantially longer period to attain maximum reproductive potential. A portion of the adult population was killed by fire in 1997 and several juveniles still had not flowered by 2004 suggesting a long juvenile period.

Little is known about the levels of flower and fruit production of the Blue Tinsel Lily. However, it is speculated that because of the species' floral architecture, it is pollinated by wasps and is therefore indicative of floral mimicry.

Fauna such as kangaroos, bush rats, pygmy possums and short nosed bandicoots are found within the park. Many reptile species are also to be found including Tiger snakes, bardick, children's python and Dugites. In 1876 the rare Dibbler was found in the park.

Tiger snakes are a type of venomous snake found in southern regions of Australia, including its coastal islands and Tasmania. These snakes are highly variable in their colour, often banded like those on a tiger, and forms in their regional occurrences.

Individuals also show seasonal variation in colour. The total length can be up to 2.9 meters. The patterning is darker bands, strongly contrasting or indistinct, which are pale to very dark in color. Coloration is composed of olive, yellow, orange-brown, or jet-black, and the underside of the snake is light yellow or orange. The tiger snake uses venom to dispatch its prey, and may bite an aggressor; they are potentially fatal to humans. Tolerant of low temperatures, the snake may be active on warmer nights. When threatened, they will flatten their bodies and raise their heads above the ground in a classic prestrike stance.

Children's python (Antaresia childreni) is a nonvenomous python species found in Australia. Adults grow to an average length of about 1m, with a maximum of 1.5m. The body is slightly laterally compressed with a short tail. Anterior maxillary teeth and mandibular teeth are very long, gradually decreasing in size posteriorly.

The diet consists of reptiles, birds and small mammals, particularly microbats which they catch by dangling from stalactites in caves, which they commonly inhabit, and snatch them out of the air as they fly past.

The Dugite (Pseudonaja affinis) is a venomous, potentially lethal, snake of the family Elapidae native to Western Australia. Dugites are coloured grey, green or brown. The colors vary widely between individuals and are an unreliable means of identifying species. The most distinguishing characteristic is the shape of the head, this is small compared to the neck, and grades imperceptibly into the body. They can grow up to 2m long.

Its venom is potentially one of the most lethal in the world, causing coagulopathic and procoagulant effects. Dugites generally avoid biting humans, but risks of encounters rise when they are most active during the mating season through October and November.

Dibbler is the common name for Parantechinus apicalis, an endangered species of marsupial. It is an inhabitant of the southwest mainland of Western Australia and some offshore islands. It is a member of the Dasyuromorphia order, and the only member of the genus, Parantechinus. The dibbler is a small, carnivorous, nocturnal, with speckled fur that is white around the eyes.

The dibbler was believed to have become extinct until it was rediscovered in 1967 at Cheyne Beach on the south coast of Western Australia after a gap of 80 years. It remains an endangered species. The Perth Zoo in Western Australia operates a conservation project for the dibbler which is helpful in its survival and breeding, and along with the Department of Environment and Conservation have helped to breed and release more dibblers into the wild.
In the early 19th century, dibblers were widely distributed across Western Australia. By 1884, they were declared extinct, but some were found on the southern coast of Western Australia in 1967. They are threatened by habitat loss (land clearing, forest fires) and predators. Their predators are mainly feral foxes and feral cats.

Dibblers weigh about 40–100 grams and eat insects, small reptiles, and nectar. The dibbler is a solitary, mostly nocturnal species. The dibbler's habitat is an unburnt vegetation area with a thick litter layer and sandy soils. They can be found sleeping in hollow logs and caves during the day.

Birdlife includes honeyeaters, wattlebirds, Button Quail, Western Rosella and a variety of sea birds.

Buttonquail or hemipodes are members of a small family of birds, Turnicidae, which resemble, but are unrelated to, the quails of Phasianidae. Buttonquails are small, drab, running birds, which avoid flying. The female is the more brightly coloured of the sexes, and initiates courtship. Unusually, the buttonquails are polyandrous, with the females circulating among several males and expelling rival females from her territory. Both sexes cooperate in building a nest in the earth, but only the male incubates the eggs and tends the young. The eggs hatch after an incubation period of 12 or 13 days, and the young are able to fly within two weeks of hatching.

They superficially resemble the true quails of the genus Coturnix, but differ from them in lacking a hind toe and a crop. The females of this family also possess a unique vocal organ created by an enlarged trachea and inflatable bulb in the oesophagus, which they use to produce a booming call.

The Western Rosella (Platycercus icterotis) less commonly known as the Stanley Rosella, Earl of Derby's parakeet or Yellow-cheeked parakeet, is the smallest species of rosella and is found in the South West of Australia, in Eucalypt forests and timbered areas. These are smallish parrots measuring 25–30 cm in length and weighing from 28 to 80 g, with an average of 63.3 g. They are red from the head to the breast with white or beige-ish yellow cheeks and blue and green patterned wings with males being slightly larger and having a more vibrant yellow cheek colouring. Their bills are a grey 'horn' colour like most Australian parrots.

Western Rosellas socialize in pairs but will often congregate in largish groups of twenty or so to forage when the season permits; their diet is herbivorous, consisting mostly of grass and seeds. They nest mostly in hollow tree trunks usually a meter or so deep and will favor hollows that have dust in the bottom (as may be created by insects boring out the tree or limb). The female incubates the eggs and leaves in the morning and afternoon to eat food found by the male.

Whales and seals can be seen from the cliffs of the park in the correct season. Also the rare and ancient Main's assassin spider, currently listed as threatened, was found to inhabit the park during a survey conducted in 2008.

The park has numerous walks mostly of a distance of less than 1,500 metres, including the Jimmy Newhills walk and the Stony Hill Heritage Trail walk. The longest trail is the 10 km Bald Head Walk along Flinders peninsula finishing at Bald Head at the eastern edge of the park.

Apparently I really was enjoying myself and not paying attention to how far I was walking because I did 2,639 steps today and worked on clearing the trails for 2 hours! Needless to say I'm exhausted and sore but I had a great time today learning so much and seeing all the wildlife. I'll see those who are going on the Central Trek. I'm sleeping tomorrow and letting Ann drive!

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EMMABE1's Photo EMMABE1 Posts: 17,796
5/11/13 9:37 P

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If you open the certificate - and look at the top left tool bar there is a "print" symbol - that will print it for you
If you want to download it to a folder on your computer - click on "file " (top left tool bar) and select "download" from the drop down menu!


Everyone smiles in the same language.

www.chairexercisefun.com


IAMAGEMLOVER's Photo IAMAGEMLOVER Posts: 36,514
5/11/13 9:32 P

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I saw the congratulations but didn't see where to sign the certificate or to download anything.

I love SparkPeople

Today is the first day of the rest of my life.

I am responsible for my own happiness.

My name is Bonnie I live in CT ET

I went from 258 to 126 pounds and have maintained it since 12/28/12.

Too Blessed to be Stressed.






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EMMABE1's Photo EMMABE1 Posts: 17,796
5/11/13 6:35 P

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emoticon
For all your comments - I am glad you enjoyed the trek - the 6 weeks have flown by and I must fly too - back to my Chair exercise team to (virtually) drive a camper van on the scenic route from Albany to Sydney!!
I look forward to seeing some of you as passengers.
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Everyone smiles in the same language.

www.chairexercisefun.com


SNOWTGRR's Photo SNOWTGRR Posts: 691
5/11/13 12:36 A

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Wow! Is it really almost over? I feel almost lost thinking about not being on the trek. I'm glad there is the Central one to do next. I love backpacking and hiking. Two things I am not capable of doing right now. Maybe after my back surgery and the year healing as well. I've really enjoyed posting/blogging this trek and am happy that others enjoyed reading what I learned. The Blogs on my spark page have pictures now thanks to Big Angel and they really make a huge difference.

I awake this morning with all these thoughts roaming around in my head. Listening to the birds warble and cry in the morning air as I awaken. Realizing that the salt air gave me a great sleep as it always does. I stretch my whole body feeling the new muscles that have been built on this trek and realize how good it has been for me. I really don't want to wake up because I don't want it to end but I really want a shower, bed and to see Albany and all it has to offer. The lure of a bed with fresh linen is to much for me so I arise and start my morning. Oatmeal, Teechino and dried fruits are my breakfast. It is the ultimate food for me. Adding in Chia seeds is just the best. I pack my backpack up, get my tent rolled waiting for the oatmeal to thicken. Then I break my fast watching the waves on the ocean that is not to far away. Listening to the ever pounding surf and watching the sea birds join me in breaking their fast as well. After eating I wash everything up and finish packing the last minute items in their place. We all get on the trail and are kind of quiet each in their own thoughts about this trek.

As we start hiking out of Torbay beach we start talking and soon everyone is in a great mood. We all realize that this is it. The last time for some of us to be packing our packs and hiking out. We also realize that there is a whole new town for us to explore and to have someone else cooking for us and cleaning up after us! After being on the trail we've come to really appreciate being able to go out to eat and sleeping in a bed. We realize that not everyone has that depending on where you live.

Very soon we see Mutton Bird Island. Mutton Bird Island is an irregularly shaped island, with an area of 44 ha. Its highest point is 40 m asl. It is part of the Mutton Bird Island Group, lying close to the southern end of the south-western coast of Tasmania. It is also part of the Southwest National Park, and thus within the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Site. The island is part of the Port Davey Islands Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance for breeding seabirds.

Recorded breeding seabird and wader species are the Little Penguin (3000 pairs), Short-tailed Shearwater, (530,000 pairs), Fairy Prion (2500 pairs), Pacific Gull, Silver Gull and Sooty Oystercatcher.

The Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) is the smallest species of penguin. The penguin, which usually grows to an average of 33 cm in height and 43 cm in length (though specific measurements vary by subspecies), is found on the coastlines of southern Australia and New Zealand, with possible records from Chile. Apart from Little Penguins, they have several common names. In Australia, they are also referred to as Fairy Penguins because of their tiny size. In New Zealand, they are also called Little Blue Penguins, or just Blue Penguins, owing to their slate-blue plumage, and they are called Kororā in Māori.

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests the split between Eudyptula and Spheniscus occurred around 25 million years ago, with the ancestors of the White-flippered and Little Penguins diverging about 2.7 million years ago.

Like those of all penguins, the little penguin's wings have developed into flippers used for swimming. The Little Penguin typically grows to between 30 and 33 cm tall and usually weighs about 1.5 kilogram on average. The head and upperparts are blue in colour, with slate-grey ear coverts fading to white underneath, from the chin to the belly. The flippers are blue. The dark grey-black beak is 3–4 cm long, the irises pale silvery- or bluish-grey or hazel, and the feet pink above with black soles and webbing. An immature individual will have a shorter bill and lighter upper parts. Like most seabirds, they have a long lifespan. The average for the species is 6.5 years, but flipper ringing experiments show in very exceptional cases up to 25 years in captivity.

The greatest threat to Little Penguin populations has been predation (including nest predation) from cats, foxes, large reptiles, ferrets and stoats. Due to their diminutive size and the introduction of new predators, some colonies have been reduced in size by as much as 98% in just a few years, such as the small colony on Middle Island, near Warrnambool, Victoria, which was reduced from approximately 600 penguins in 2001 to less than 10 in 2005. Because of this threat of colony collapse, conservationists pioneered an experimental technique using Maremma Sheepdogs to protect the colony and fend off would-be predators.

Little Penguins spend the whole day swimming in the sea. They are out at sunrise and hunt into the evening. Little Penguins preen their feathers to keep them waterproof. They do this by rubbing a tiny drop of oil onto every feather from a special gland above the tail.

These birds feed by hunting fish, squid and other small sea animals, for which they travel and dive quite extensively. They are generally inshore feeders. The use of data loggers has provided information of the diving behavior of Little Penguins. 50% of their dives go no deeper than 2 m and the mean diving time is 21 seconds. Yet, they are able to dive as deep as 20m and remained submerged as long as 60 sec.

Little Penguins mature at different ages. The female matures at 2 years old. The male, however, matures at 3 years old. Little Penguins only remain faithful to their partner in breeding seasons and whilst hatching eggs. At other times of the year they do tend to swap burrows. They exhibit site fidelity to their nesting colonies and nesting sites over successive years.

Little Penguins live year-round in large colonies, with each individual breeding pair forming a burrow in which to raise their chicks (of which two are born at a time, usually about 2 days apart). Little Penguins typically return to their colonies to feed their chicks at dusk. The birds will tend to come ashore in small groups to provide some defense against predators which might pick off individuals one by one. In Australia, the strongest colonies are usually on cat-free and fox-free islands.

South of Perth, Western Australia, visitors to Penguin Island are able to view penguins in a totally natural state. Less than one hour from the centre of the city, it is possible to see Little Penguins in all months, including visiting sensitive areas where they remain on land for extended periods for the purposes of molting.

At Phillip Island, a viewing area has been set up at the Phillip Island Nature Park to allow visitors to view the nightly "penguin parade". Lights and concrete stands have been erected to allow visitors to see but not photograph the birds interacting in their colony.

The Short-tailed Shearwater or Slender-billed Shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), also called Yolla or Moonbird, and commonly known as the muttonbird in Australia, is the most abundant seabird species in Australian waters, and is one of the few Australian native birds in which the chicks are commercially harvested

Each parent feeds the single chick for 2–3 days and then leaves for up to three weeks in search of food. These foraging trips can cover a distance of 1,500 km and mean the chick may be left unattended for over a week. When the chicks fledge they weigh around 900 g, and may be heavier than their parents.

The Fairy Prion (Pachyptila turtur) is a small seabird with the standard prion plumage of black upperparts and white underneath with an "M" wing marking. The Fairy Prion is the smallest prion and it measures between 23–28 cm long. Its plumage is blue-grey on its upperparts, and white underneath. They have a dark "M" on their upperparts extending to their wingtips, and their tail is wedge-shaped with a dark tip. They have a blue bill and feet.

The Fairy Prion is a member of the Pachyptila genus, and along with the Blue Petrel makes up the Prions. The prions are small and typically eat just zooplankton; however as a member of the Procellariiformes, they share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. Although the nostrils on the Albatross are on the sides of the bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between 7 and 9 horny plates. They produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. The proventriculus is generally a glandular part of the stomach that may store and/or commence digestion of food before it progresses to the gizzard. This is used against predators as well as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights. Finally, they also have a salt gland that is situated above the nasal passage and helps desalinate their bodies, due to the high amount of ocean water that they imbibe. It excretes a high saline solution from their nose. The diet consists mainly of planktonic crustaceans and other tiny sea animals, which they feed at night from the water's surface.

They breed colonially and prefer small islands. The nest is situated in soil, hidden by vegetation and is dug with the bill or feet, or it is in a hollow in a crevice. When coming back to their nest at night, they will coo softly and listen for their mate.

The Pacific Gull (Larus pacificus) is a very large gull, native to the coasts of Australia. It is moderately common between Carnarvon in the west, and Sydney in the east, although it has become scarce in some parts of the south-east, as a result of competition from the Kelp Gull, which has "self-introduced" since the 1940s.

Much larger than the ubiquitous Silver Gull, and nowhere near as common, Pacific Gulls are usually seen alone or in pairs, loafing around the shoreline, steadily patrolling high above the edge of the water, or sometimes zooming high on the breeze to drop a shellfish or sea urchin onto rocks.

Pacific Gulls are the only large gulls in their range, besides the occasional Kelp Gull. This species can range in length from 58 to 66 cm and span 137 to 157 cm across the wings. They typically weigh from 900 to 1,180 g. This species is mostly white, with dark wings and back, and a very thick (when compared to other gull species), powerful, red-tipped yellow bill. Young birds are mottled-brown all over, and attain their adult plumage only gradually: by its fourth year, a young Pacific Gull has usually become difficult to tell apart from an adult bird.

The Silver Gull (Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae) also known simply as "seagull" in Australia, is the most common gull seen in Australia. It has been found throughout the continent, but particularly at or near coastal areas. The Silver Gull should not be confused with the Herring Gull, which is called "silver gull" in many other languages but is a much larger, robust gull with no overlap in range. The Silver Gull has a sharp voice consisting of a variety of calls. The most common call is a harsh 'kwee-aarr'.

The head, body and tail are white. The wings are light grey with white spotted, black tips. Adults range from 40–45 cm in length. Mean wing span is 94 cm. Juveniles have brown patterns on their wings, and a dark beak. Adults have bright red beaks—the brighter the red, the older the bird.

Silver gulls are found in all states of Australia. It is a common species, having adapted well to urban environments and thriving around shopping centres and garbage dumps. The silver gull naturally feeds on worms, fish, insects and crustaceans. It is a successful scavenger, allowing increased numbers near human settlements.

Breeding occurs from August to December. The nest is located on the ground and consists of seaweed, roots and plant stems. The nests may be found in low shrubs, rocks and jetties. Typical clutch size is 1–3 eggs.

The Sooty Oystercatcher (Haematopus fuliginosus) is a species of oystercatcher. It is a wading bird endemic to Australia and commonly found on its coastline. It prefers rocky coastlines, but will occasionally live in estuaries. All of its feathers are black. It has a red eye, eye ring and bill, and pink legs.

Measuring 42 to 52 cm long with a bill length of 5–8 cm, the Sooty Oystercatcher has all black plumage, with pink-red legs and scarlet or orange-red bill and eyes. The heaviest of all oystercatchers, the Sooty Oystercatcher weighs up to 980 g, averaging around 819 g, with females larger and heavier. Males have shorter, thicker bills and females have longer, thinner bills. The 19% average difference in length is the most marked of any oystercatcher species. Immature birds have grey-brown legs, a bill tipped with brown, a browner cast to their plumage, and brown eyes. The bill, eyes and legs become red by the second year.

Preferring rocky shores, the Sooty Oystercatcher is endemic to Australia. There are an estimated 11,500 individuals, 4000 of the nominate race and 7500 of the northern race. However it is declared Rare in South Australia and Queensland, Near Threatened in Victoria and Endangered in New South Wales.

The Sooty Oystercatcher almost always forages in the intertidal zone, for the two hours either side of low tide. A field study published in 2011 showed that prey items differed markedly between the sexes with only a 36% overlap. Females focussed on soft-bodied prey which they could swallow whole such as fish, crabs, bluebottle jellyfish and various worm-like creatures such as cunjevoi, while males preferred hard-shelled prey such as mussels (Mytilus planulatus), sea urchins, turban shells (Turbo undulatus and Turbo torquata), and black periwinkle (Nerita atramentosa).

A clutch of two to three eggs is laid in a crevice in rocks or small hollow or flat on the ground, often on an island or high place where parent birds can keep watch. Tapered oval in shape, the eggs are buff to beige with dark brown and lavender dots and splotches and measure 63 mm long by 42 mm wide.

Reptiles present are the Metallic Skink and Tasmanian Tree Skink.

The Metallic Cool-skink or Metallic Skink (Niveoscincus metallicus) is a species of skink in the Scincidae family. It is endemic to Australia, found in southern Victoria, as well as in Tasmania where it is the most widespread and common lizard, occurring on many offshore islands in Bass Strait as well as the mainland. It gives birth to live young.

The Agile Cool-skink or Tasmanian Tree Skink (Niveoscincus pretiosus) is a species of skink in the Scincidae family. It is endemic to Tasmania and the Bass Strait islands. It is viviparous, and may be found in a wide variety of habitats, from tall forests to rocky coastlines.

As we keep hiking and taking in all the sights we come upon a Windfarm. Those things are HUGE!

Australia has excellent wind resources by world standards. The southern coastline lies in the roaring forties and hundreds of sites have average wind speeds above 8 or even 9 m/s at 50 m above ground (the hub height of a modern wind generator). The southwest of Western Australia, southern South Australia, western Victoria, northern Tasmania and elevated areas of New South Wales and Queensland have good wind resources. Several states engaged in systematic wind speed monitoring in the 1980s and 1990s, the results of which are publicly available. Australian wind farms produce on average capacity factors of 30–35%, making wind an attractive option.

We look up and across Princess Royal Harbor and see our destination! Albany!

Princess Royal Harbour is a part of King George Sound on the South Coast Western Australia, and harbour to Albany. On its northern shore is the Port of Albany. George Vancouver named the harbour after Her Royal Highness Princess Charlotte Augusta Matilda; who was born when he sailed into the waters in September 1791. The harbour was less than two metres deep until it was dredged in 1901, and its entrance was dredged in 1952. The Princess Royal Harbour was the departure location for a large convoy of Australian troops in November 1914.

We pick up our pace all eager to get to Albany. Albany is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and is the state capital. As of 2009, Albany's population was estimated at 33,600, making it the sixth-largest city in the state.

The city center is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The Central Business District is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany.
Albany was founded in January 1827 as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. The area was initially named Frederickstown in honor of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Governor James Stirling.

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields and, for many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The construction of Fremantle Harbour in 1893, however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and, later, whaling. Unlike Perth and Fremantle, Albany was a strong supporter of Federation in 1901.

Today the town is a place of significance as a tourist destination and base from which to explore the south-west of the state and is well regarded for its natural beauty and preservation of heritage. The town has an important, though somewhat controversial, role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War.

Albany is the oldest permanently settled town in Western Australia, predating Perth and Fremantle by some two years.

The Albany region was first home to the Menang Noongar people, who made use of the area during the summer months for fishing and other activities. They called the area Kinjarling which means "the place of rain". Many town names in South-Western Australia end in "up" or "ing", which means "place of" in the Noongar language. They would sometimes camp near "Boondie Yokine" – roughly translated as Dog Rock. Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on French, now Kalgan, River and a small "village" of bark dwellings that were, at the time, deserted.

Albany is the oldest continuous European settlement in Western Australia, founded in 1826, three years before the state capital of Perth. The King George Sound settlement was a hastily dispatched British military outpost, intended to forestall any plans by France for settlements in Western Australia.

The main industries of Albany consist of tourism, fishing and agriculture, although before the 1950s whaling was one of the major sources of income and employment for the population.

The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has now been converted into a museum of whaling, and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the Southern Hemisphere and the English-speaking world at its time of closing.

The Western Power Wind Farm in Albany is the largest and newest in Australia. Its 12 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, can generate up to 75% of the city's electricity usage.

Albany also has a number of historic tourist sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts), Patrick Taylor Cottage, which is the oldest dwelling in Western Australia, c1832. Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia.

Natural sights are also numerous, especially the rugged coastline, which includes the Natural Bridge and the Gap. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer HMAS Perth was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck. Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges.

Albany is also the southern terminus of the Bibbulmun Track walking trail. Which we know because we have just walked off it and into the city. We find our accommodations and all take a nice long shower and clean ourselves up so we can find food without people looking at us sideways!

Today is a small step day for me with only 1,470 steps and about 20 minutes of cleaning up parts of the trail. But I'm saving my knee for the next two days!

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5/11/13 12:21 A

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I just want to thank Emma for all the hard work she put into this trek. I have enjoyed getting to see plants and animals that I didn't even know existed. I am going to continue sight seeing tomorrow and try to get in a lot of steps since I was sick several days this week and have not meet my target. I look forward to seeing those of you who are continuing on.

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5/10/13 9:39 A

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Wednesday totals, 60 minutes of exercise, 10013 steps and 11 flights of stairs
Thursday totals, 90 minutes of heavy yard work (I moved 3 wheel barrows of rocks from the house to the rock pile, cut down and relocated 2 trees and planted my potatoes! Felt great!) It was my go to town day also and they had Mom's Night Out at the mall so I got in 18123 steps and 20 flights of stairs. It's sort of raining today so I'm sure I won't get enough steps today....LOL

I also agree that Patty has done and awesome job of blogging and it's been fun reading all her blogs and also all the stuff in the trek folder!! Today I will get to catch up on all the reading I missed while up at my Dad's. Looking forward to the next trek! Yes, Emma....you should be the minister of tourism for Australia!! You are fantastic!!! Thanks!!!!! emoticon emoticon emoticon

Edited by: CAMPERLIVING at: 5/10/2013 (09:40)
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For all those who have completed this trek - there is a Finishing Certificate in the folder with the trek notes - you can download it, add your name and keep it as a souvenir

Thank you to all who participated - I hope you enjoyed it!!

LadyMarsha - everyone gets the certificate if they finish the trek - I agree though that Patty has gone above and beyond - and her blogs are a pleasure to read - and I will enjoy continuing to read them in the next trek as she is joining CEteam for that!! It starts Sunday 12th May - Virtual trek Central Australia - but only in CE team!! We are taking the scenic route back to Sydney from Western Australia as the other trek members get their plane back to USA from Sydney!!



Everyone smiles in the same language.

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5/10/13 12:59 A

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Lady Marsha I really have no idea what you are talking about. What prize are you talking about? I do my posts/blogs because I like doing them. I don't even remember anything about prizes. emoticon Pain meds are good tonight.

Well that being said we wake up refreshed and ready for the trail again. We have a great easy breakfast to fill us up so we have energy to hike. We set out to go to Wilson Inlet.

Wilson Inlet is an inlet located 2 kilometers South East of the town of Denmark. The inlet receives water from the two main rivers: the Denmark River and the Hay River. The inlet is a wave dominated estuary with an opening mouth that has a width of 100 meters with a bar blocking it from late January to August. The inlet is separated into two basins, the Eastern and Western basin.

The estuary is situated on a narrow coastal plain between granite hills to the north and the west and the coastal dunes to the south. The area of the inlet is 48 square kilometers and has an average depth of 1.8 meters and its deepest point is 5 meters. The inlet is 14 kilometers long from East to West and has a width of 4 kilometers. The inlet discharges through Nullaki Point at the Eastern end of Ocean Beach and into Ratcliffe Bay and finally into the Southern Ocean when the sandbar is open. The low lying land adjacent to the inlet consists of swamps with lakes to the East. The silt beds in the area indicate that it was of recent estuarine origin.

The inlet was formed 6000–8000 years ago when rising sea levels lead to an ancient river valley being flooded. The original human inhabitants of the inlet and surrounds were Indigenous Australian people, the Noongar. Many Aboriginal artefacts have been found in the area including fish traps, corroboree sites, ochre excavation site and campsites.

The Noongar name for the Inlet is Koorabup which means Place of the Black Swan. The area was discovered by Thomas Wilson in his 1892 expedition from Albany. The Inlet was named after Wilson by Governor Stirling.

The inlet is fringed with Juncus kraussi a rush which forms a single species near the mouth of the inlet. It is commonly called Salt Marsh Rush, Sea Rush, Matting Rush or Dune Slack Rush. It grows in Salt marshes, estuarine and coastal areas. This species is ideal as a stabilizer in estuary banks and riparian zones that adjoin developed areas. It prevents erosion and provides an excellent fiber for weaving. This species is a tussock shaped perennial with many rhizomes. The leaves are tough, straw shaped and spine-tipped that grow to be 40 centimeters in length with a golden brown or shiny black sheath. The inflorescences or flowers of J. kraussi are reddish brown to purplish brown in colour, 4 centimeters - 20 centimetres in length and are clustered toward the end of the stem. The flowers occur clusters of three to six and flowering occurs in Summer between October and January.

Salt Marsh Rush is salt tolerant and favors a damp environment and is most often found in areas such as swamps and brackish estuaries. The plant is able to grow in a range of soils from sands to alluvium. Alluvium is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel.

Melaleuca cuticularis, commonly called Saltwater Paperbark, is a native tree of Western Australia. It is a salt tolerant paperbark tree that also fringes the inlet and follows the channels and is present in the tidal parts of the rivers. It is able to grow in saline wetlands such as swamps and estuaries. It is tolerant of both waterlogging and the presence of salt in the air and water. The tree is native to Western Australia and is located mostly in Coastal regions South of Perth. This species is ideal for sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils and is commonly used for soil stabilisation and revegetation. It is also shade and drought tolerant so can be used in hedges or windbreaks

The salt marsh is predominantly made up of Salt Marsh Rush, Sarcocornia quinqueflora, and Samolus repens.

Sarcocornia quinqueflora, commonly known as Beaded Samphire, Bead weed, Beaded Glasswort or Glasswort, is a species of succulent halophytic coastal shrub. Halophytic means it is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray.

Samolus repens is a species of water pimpernel native to Australia, New Zealand and adjacent Pacific islands, and South America (South Chile), where it is common in temperate and subtropic coastlines. This species has small white or occasionally pink flowers with a flowering period from September through to March or April. Common names include Creeping Brookweed and Creeping Bushweed.

Wilson Inlet is a key nursery for many juvenile fish species especially Pink Snapper which migrate from the Inlet to mature in the greater oceanic breeding stock. As a result of this the size of Pink Snapper that could be removed from the inlet was raised from 28 centimeters to 41 centimeters in July 2007. Recreational fishing is popular within the inlet, that many species of fish inhabit including Cobbler, King George Whiting, Tailor, Mullet, Salmon Trout and Flathead. Other fish found in the estuary include Sandy Sprat, Yellow Eye Mullet, Sea Mullet and Blue Mackerel. Many waterbird species inhabit the inlet and its surroundings including the Silver Gull, Australian Pelican, Black Swan, Little Black Cormorant, Grey Teal, Blue-billed Duck, Red-necked Avocet and the Australasian Shoveler.

After hiking through the area looking at all the wildlife and water we hike on to Lowlands beach. The beach is part of West Cape Howe National Park and is close to our destination.

West Cape Howe National Park is a national park in Western Australia. The park is found between Albany and Denmark within the City of Albany and in the Great Southern region. Torbay Head, the most southerly point of Western Australia, is situated within the park. The park is abutted against the coast of the Southern Ocean and takes up approximately 23 km of the coastline between Lowlands Beach and Forsythe Bluff.

The park is home to a range of habitats including Karri forest, coastal heath and wetlands each of which support a diverse array of vegetation and plant species. The area around Lake William supports a dense sedge scrub and rare species such as Amperea volubilus and an unnamed species of Melaleuca. The Albany Pitcher Plant, Cephalotus follicularis, is also found in the park. The rare and ancient Main's assassin spider, currently listed as threatened, was found to inhabit the park as well. We learned about this one yesterday.

Torbay is a small township in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 25 kilometres west of Albany. There is a crater on Mars named after it, but was never commemorated. The town is named after a bay on the coast that is south of the town, believed to be named by Governor James Stirling in 1831 after Torbay in Devon, England.

We hike on down to the beach and enjoy the views and take our boots off to run in the waves for a bit. Then we hike on to the Torbay Campsite and set up our tents like a well oiled group working together to help each other so no one is left behind. We make our dinners and settle in having a great time chatting and sharing about what we saw today.

Even with my bum knee I did 2,969 steps. I also did 20 minutes of cleanup on the beach to help keep it pristine.

Patty emoticon




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5/9/13 5:39 P

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Beth,
I'm right there with you. I was creative in the beginning but I lost momentum. Now I just leave it up to our partner in hike, SNOWTGRR Patty!!! I just read her review.

But I must say that EMMABE1 should be the minister of tourism for Australia!! What a wonderful challenge she has put together. I LOVE reading the information and looking at the beautiful pictures of the one place on earth other the here I would love to visit.

This has been fantastic. And Patty, I hope you win the final price! You sooo deserve it.
Marcia emoticon

My feet hurt from all this walking. emoticon

I think I can. I know I can. I will.

Don't let yesterday use up to much of today!




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5/9/13 1:49 A

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We wake up to the morning serenade of the birds getting their breakfast. I decide to get my breakfast as well. My morning cup of Teechino and some oatmeal is just what I needed. We all pack up and out as the morning progresses. We hike over dunes and some more spectacular beaches. As we hike we see a huge rock sticking out over the tops of the trees. That it seems is Monkey Rock.

Monkey Rock, only slightly lower than Mount Hallowell to the north, has spectacular views over William Bay National Park (west) and Ratcliffe Bay, Ocean Beach and Nullaki peninsula, home of Anvil Beach. Wilson Head marks the eastern perimeter of Ratcliffe Bay, stretching out into the Great Southern Ocean. Monkey Rocks can be a dangerous place as there are no guard rails. Be extremely careful, especially if one is balance challenged. Monkey Rocks doesn't look like such a big deal from the bottom. Sure, they're big rocks poking out of the treetops, but why climb all the way up there? The answer is because of the incredible views from the top.

We make our way down and keep hiking. Moving through the hinterland is difficult at best and it is slow going. The brush keeps snagging on our clothes and packs. So we help each other out to make it easier. We finally get into Denmark. Now this Denmark is just the name of the town. lol It's not the country!

The coast line of the Denmark area was observed for the first time in 1627 by the Dutchman François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Seepaert (The Golden Seahorse). Captain Thijssen had discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,800 kilometres of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the discovered land after Pieter Nuyts, a high employee of the Dutch East India Company, who was aboard ship as a passenger. His name lives on in Nuytsia floribunda, the Western Australian Christmas Tree.
Two centuries later, when the first white people entered the land around the present Denmark River, the area was inhabited by the Noongar. These aborigines called the river and the inlet Kwoorabup, which means 'place of the black wallaby' (kwoor). The Noongar disappeared out of the Denmark region in the beginning of the 20th century.

Nuytsia floribunda is a hemiparasitic plant found in Western Australia. The species is known locally as the Christmas Tree, displaying bright orange flowers during the Christmas season. A parasitic plant is one that derives some or all of its sustenance from another plant. Parasitic plants have a modified root, the haustorium, that penetrates the host plant and connects to the xylem, phloem, or both. The Xylem and Phloem are different types of transportation tissues for a plants vascular system.

The habit of the species is a tree up to 10 m high, or as a shrub. The rough bark is grey-brown. Flowers are a vivid yellow-orange, appearing between October and January. It is a root hemiparasite, is photosynthetic and mainly obtains water and mineral nutrients from its hosts. The haustoria arising from the roots of Nuytsia attach themselves to roots of many nearby plants and draw water and therefore nutrients from them. Almost all species are susceptible to attack, haustoria have even been found attached to underground cables. In botany, a haustorium (plural haustoria) is the appendage or portion of a parasitic fungus (the hyphal tip) or of the root of a parasitic plant that penetrates the host's tissue and draws nutrients from it. Haustoria do not penetrate the host's cell membranes. In natural settings Nuytsia withdraws relatively little from each individual host, but is attached to so many other plants that the benefit to this hemiparasitic tree is likely to be considerable.

The Nyungar people made use of the species during the season Kambarang, around October to early December, obtaining bark to make shields. The gum that exudes from the wound can be collected later, it is sweet and eaten raw.

Around 1885, timber leases were taken out in the Denmark River area, and 15 years later milling was at its peak with Denmark having a population of around 2,000. A railway line from Denmark to Albany was built to transport the karri timber, which was a wanted article all over the world. Many roads in London were paved with karri blocks, and British houses were built with timber from Denmark. However, as with anything that is overdone, resource depletion soon resulted in a total collapse of the timber industry. The population declined dramatically, and started to revive only with the introduction of the Group Settlement Scheme in the 1920s. By the 1960s the population had increased to 1,500 and Denmark was becoming attractive to alternative life-stylers and early retirees. Intensive agriculturists such as wine growers had discovered the value of the rich karri loam for their vineyards. Riesling and Chardonnay were the first grapes grown on Denmark soil, soon followed by other varieties. Within 50 years the area became a wine subregion of critical acclaim, as part of the Great Southern Wine Region. The first winery, Tinglewood, opened in 1976, and by 2008, over twenty vineyards had been established around Denmark. Tourism started when American soldiers, stationed in Albany during World War II, made outings to Denmark. After the war, Denmark became a popular holiday destination for Western Australians as well.

Denmark is surrounded by native woodland with a large variety of trees, including the eucalypts marri, karri, jarrah and red tingle. The latter can reach a height of 60 meters. A distinctive local tree is the Red-flowering Gum.

There are many indigenous bird species, including Splendid Fairy-wrens, Emus, Australian White Ibis, Australian Magpies and Australian Ringnecks. Many species of reptiles including snakes and skinks can be found. Marsupials such as the Western Grey Kangaroo, the Southern Brown Bandicoot and the Common Brushtail Possum also live in the area.

The abundance of fish, squid and other marine life in the Denmark estuaries and along the coastline attracts Bottlenose Dolphins and seals; seasonally Southern Right Whales rest there during their long migrations to the north.

As we get into town we go straight to our accommodations and get cleaned up and do a quick walkabout to see what we can see in the town. I twisted my knee today and only got in 1333 steps and nothing else today. So it's time for a nice dinner and some well deserved sleep.

Patty emoticon







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5/8/13 9:56 P

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Well, week 6 and though I've been keeping up with my exercises and thank goodness I printed out all the wonderful places I've seen along this hike, I have had so much at work and little computer time to do more than just log on and track my food.
I'm up to walking a mile every day on my break at work, visiting the gym 4 days a week to swim and running after my littlest grandson who just started walking.
I can't believe that this wonderful walk is almost over. Where does the time go when you are having so much fun.
And I've put together a wonderful binder with all the wonderful literature that our Fearless Leader has given us access to. Thanks! I've been a delinquent traveler here but I've sure enjoy reading my freinds trip. She's done a fabulous job of detailing the trip.
Only a few more days. And my pants are getting baggy and I like that!!!!

Edited by: LADYMARCIA1 at: 5/8/2013 (21:57)
I think I can. I know I can. I will.

Don't let yesterday use up to much of today!




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5/8/13 9:21 A

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Tuesdays totals....60 minutes of exercise, 11255 steps and 15 flights of stairs. I tried jogging yesterday and managed to go 1/4 mile! I did it twice so today will try to do the same.

My Dad's doctor is questioning the need for the cardiologist to do the vascular study they want to do. He thinks its an unneccesary burden for him since no matter what they find they can't do anything about it. My Dad would not be a candidate for any surgeries since his health is so fragile. It seems that it would be best to let him be comfortable and happy and enjoy whatever time he has left without the unnecessary medical tests for no reason other than to make more money for the clinics. I think that might actually be sound advice. Life is hard, getting old isn't for sissies!!

Which came first, the tornado or the travel trailer??


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5/8/13 4:09 A

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Oh boy. Camping out again. lol I woke up this morning and my legs were so stiff. It took me a while to get them working again but I got them going. So I had my breakfast and packed up my backpack so I could join everyone on the trail.

Today we are going to see pristine white beaches and more heathlands. Hiking down to William Bay Campsite. The first thing we see are some Kangaroos on our way to Gap Beach.

The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning 'large foot'). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, especially those of the genus Macropus, red kangaroo, antilopine kangaroo, eastern grey kangaroo and western grey kangaroo. Kangaroos are endemic to the country of Australia. The smaller macropods are found in Australia and New Guinea.

Kangaroos have large, powerful hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, a long muscular tail for balance, and a small head. Female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development.

They are not farmed to any extent, but wild kangaroos are shot for meat, leather hides, and to protect grazing land for sheep and cattle. There is some controversy about harvesting kangaroo meat. Doing so has both many environmental and health benefits over traditional meats. The kangaroo has been historically a source of food for indigenous Australians. Kangaroo meat is high in protein and low in fat (about 2%). Kangaroo meat has a high concentration of the fatty acid Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) when compared with other foods. Low fat diets rich in CLA have been studied for their potential in reducing obesity and atherosclerosis. Kangaroo meat is stronger in flavor than the meat from commercially raised food animals. It is considered to be tender. Minced (or ground) kangaroo meat may be substituted into dishes where minced beef would normally be used.

The kangaroo is an unofficial symbol of Australia, and appears as an emblem on the Australian coat of arms, on some of its currency, and is used by some of Australia's well known organizations, including Qantas and the Royal Australian Air Force. The kangaroo is important to both Australian culture and the national image, and consequently there are numerous popular culture references.

The word "kangaroo" derives from the Guugu Yimithirr word gangurru, referring to grey kangaroos. The name was first recorded as "kanguru" on 12 July 1770 in an entry in the diary of Sir Joseph Banks. A common myth about the kangaroo's English name is that "kangaroo" was a Guugu Yimithirr phrase for "I don't understand you." The Kangaroo myth was debunked in the 1970s by linguist John B. Haviland in his research with the Guugu Yimithirr people.

Kangaroos are often locally referred to as "roos". Male kangaroos are called bucks, boomers, jacks, or old men; females are does, flyers, or jills, and the young ones are joeys. The collective noun for kangaroos is a mob, troop, or court. Mobs usually have 10 or more kangaroos in them. Living in mobs provides protection for some of the weaker members of the group.

There are four species that are commonly referred to as kangaroos:

The red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) is the largest surviving marsupial anywhere in the world. Fewer in numbers, the Red Kangaroo occupies the arid and semi-arid centre of the country. A large male can be 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 90 kg (200 lb).

The eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) is less well-known than the red (outside of Australia), but the most often seen, as its range covers the fertile eastern part of the country.

The western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) is slightly smaller again at about 54 kg (119 lb) for a large male. It is found in the southern part of Western Australia, South Australia near the coast, and the Darling River basin.

The antilopine kangaroo (Macropus antilopinus) is, essentially, the far-northern equivalent of the eastern and western grey kangaroos. Like them, it is a creature of the grassy plains and woodlands, and gregarious.

In addition, there are about 50 smaller macropods closely related to the kangaroo in the family Macropodidae. Kangaroos and other macropods share a common ancestor with Phalangeridae from the mid-Miocene. The Phalangeridae are a family of nocturnal marsupials native to Australia and New Guinea, including the cuscuses, brushtail possums, and their close relatives. Species related to the modern grey kangaroos and wallaroos begin to appear in the Pliocene. The red kangaroo appears to be the most recently evolved kangaroo with its fossil record not going back beyond the Pleistocene period, 1–2 mya.

Kangaroos are the only large animals to use hopping as a means of locomotion. The comfortable hopping speed for a red kangaroo is about 20–25 km/h (13–16 mph), but speeds of up to 70 km/h (44 mph) can be attained over short distances, while it can sustain a speed of 40 km/h (25 mph) for nearly 2 km (1.2 mi). This fast and energy-efficient method of travel has evolved because of the need to regularly cover large distances in search of food and water, rather than the need to escape predators. To move at slow speeds, it uses its tail to form a tripod with its two forelimbs, then raises its hind feet forward. Kangaroos are adept swimmers, and often flee into waterways if threatened by a predator. If pursued into the water, a kangaroo may use its forepaws to hold the predator underwater so as to drown it.

Kangaroos have chambered stomachs similar to those of cattle and sheep. They regurgitate the vegetation they have eaten, chew it as cud, and then swallow it again for final digestion. Different species of kangaroos have different diets, although all are strict herbivores. The smaller species of kangaroos also consume hypogeal fungi. Many species are nocturnal, and crepuscular, usually spending the days resting in shade, and the cool evenings, nights and mornings moving about and feeding. Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight, that is during dawn and dusk.

Fighting has been described in all species of kangaroos. Fights between kangaroos can be brief or long and ritualized. In highly competitive situations such as males fighting for access to mate with females or at limited drinking spots, the fights are brief. Both sexes will fight for drinking spots, but long, ritualized fighting or "boxing" is largely done by males.

Despite having herbivorous diets similar to ruminants such as cattle, which release large quantities of methane through exhaling and eructation, kangaroos release virtually none. Eructation is the release of gas from the digestive tract through the mouth. The hydrogen by-product of fermentation is instead converted into acetate, which is then used to provide further energy. Scientists are interested in the possibility of transferring the bacteria responsible from kangaroos to cattle, since the greenhouse gas effect of methane is 23 times greater than that of carbon dioxide, per molecule.

Kangaroos have few natural predators. The thylacine, considered by palaeontologists to have once been a major natural predator of the kangaroo, is now extinct. Other extinct predators included the marsupial lion, Megalania and the Wonambi. However, with the arrival of humans in Australia at least 50,000 years ago and the introduction of the dingo about 5,000 years ago, have taken over the predator spot. A defensive tactic described by witnesses is a Kangaroo catching an attacking dog with the forepaws and disembowelling it with the hind legs. Kangaroos are shy and retiring by nature, and in normal circumstances present no threat to humans. However I would never assume they are friendly or tame.

Kangaroos and wallabies have large, elastic tendons in their hind legs. They store elastic strain energy in the tendons of their large hind legs, providing most of the energy required for each hop by the spring action of the tendons rather than by any muscular effort. This is true in all animal species which have muscles connected to their skeletons through elastic elements such as tendons, but the effect is more pronounced in kangaroos. There is also a link between the hopping action and breathing. As the feet leave the ground, air is expelled from the lungs; bringing the feet forward ready for landing refills the lungs, providing further energy efficiency.

The kangaroo has always been a very important animal for Australian Aborigines, for its meat, hide, bone and tendon. Kangaroo hides were also sometimes used for recreation, in particular there are accounts of some tribes (Kurnai) using stuffed kangaroo scrotum as a ball for the traditional football game of marngrook. In addition, there were important Dreaming stories and ceremonies involving the kangaroo.

As we keep hiking we come upon Gap Beach in Peaceful Bay. Peaceful Bay is a hamlet in the Shire of Denmark, a picturesque holiday spot on the Southern Ocean.

The Peaceful Bay area is renowned for its wildflowers it is home to the world's only endemic stand of red flowering gum (Corymbia Ficifolia) and over 40 species of native orchids. So it seems that every time you turn you see a new Orchid. I kept my camera handy so I could get all the pictures I wanted.

We keep hiking and reach the Quarrum Nature Reserve. A nature reserve (natural reserve, nature preserve, natural preserve, bioreserve, or just preserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. The coastline of the Quarrum-Owingup Nature Reserve is rocky, wild and rugged. Hiking through this area proves to be challenging even for the best of us. But, we make it! We all end up helping each other.

We end up making it to Boat Harbor and on to Perry Inlet. Then we find ourselves at the William Bay National Park. William Bay National Park includes Greens Pool and Elephant Rocks. The granite boulders create a natural reef which protects Greens Pool from the Great Southern Ocean. William Bay National Park is located in the Great Southern Region of Western Australia along the Rainbow Coast, and is in the Shire of Denmark.

William Bay was named after the famed British Arctic explorer and navigator, Sir William Edward Parry, as were two other nearby features, Parry Inlet and Edward Point. The bay was named in the 1830s by John Septimus Roe.

The rare and ancient Main's assassin spider, currently listed as threatened, was found to inhabit the park during a survey conducted in 2008.

Assassin spiders, also known as the Spidsnuck, are a group of spiders of the families Archaeidae and Mecysmaucheniidae, which are extremely unusual in that they have "necks," which can be very long and slender or short and fat. Archaeids prey only upon other spiders, while mecysmaucheniids seem to be generalists. Assassin spiders were first known from 40 million year old amber fossils, which were found in Europe in the 1840s, and were not known to have living varieties until 1881, when the first living assassin spider was found in Madagascar. They are native to Australia and South Africa and Madagascar, with the sister family Mecysmaucheniidae occurring in Southern South America and New Zealand. They range in size from 8 mm to 2 mm. So be careful when confronted with a spider.

We reach our camp with no incidents of spiders and make camp having dinner right away.

I ended up with only 1587 steps today but was busy with cleaning up the area we were to camp in for 60 minutes as the last people were not as nice.

Going to sleep quickly and making sure my tent was truly zipped up against the creepy crawlies of the night.

Patty emoticon






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CAMPERLIVING's Photo CAMPERLIVING SparkPoints: (44,312)
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5/7/13 10:46 A

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Mondays totals were 60 minutes of exercise, 13375 steps and 10 flights of stairs.

It's amazing how fast our bodies muscles stiffen up when we get out of our routine. It's not like it didn't do anything, but I am seriously stiff. It must take a little to get all the stress out. Yesterday I also had to clean the house and usually doing the floors is no big deal......it was a big deal.....LOL

Anyway, onward and upward!! or is that downward.... emoticon emoticon emoticon

Which came first, the tornado or the travel trailer??


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5/7/13 2:29 A

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Wow! On our 6th week already! I just can't believe it. All the things I've learned is almost overwhelming. I am getting very good at knowing which Gum tree I'm seeing and the Tingle trees as well. The rocks are always easy for me since I love to collect rocks and crystals. Australia has sure been educational for me. I can't wait to finish this week.

I woke up this morning with all of this running through my head. Just amazed at the trip so far. I packed up and met everyone else to get on the trail. With all these hills my bottom is going to look good by the time I get back home. emoticon I know it hurts enough for it! Climbing out of the valley and onto the top of the hill we turn around and look at the view for a last time and took pictures. Then we officially started our last week together in Western Australia on the trek. Thinking about what I learned about Frankland River and the area.

Here are some of the things:

The town and region were known as Frankland River until 1935. After the building of a local post office, the postmaster shortened the name to Frankland because "Frankland River" was considered too long to fit on signs and documents.

The state government set aside land for the townsite by 1909 and built a hall and a school. No further developments took place for some time and the townsite was not declared until 1947.

Frankland River was named by the surgeon Dr Thomas Braidwood Wilson in 1829. Wilson, who was on his way to Sydney, left Albany to explore the hinterland while his ship, the Governor Phillip, was being repaired. He named Frankland River and Mount Frankland after George Frankland who was the Surveyor General in Van Diemen's Land in 1829.

Wilson's explorations helped to show that conditions in the interior were suitable for farming and settlers soon began to move inland. The area was settled in 1857.

Originally settled by farming families in the late 19th century, following good reports from explorers to the region and due to its good soils, consistent, reliable rainfall, rivers and lakes, the land was cleared of its heavy wandoo, jarrah and marri to make way for pastures for grazing and arable land for cropping.

Frankland expanded with the influx of war veterans following World War II, mill workers, shearing teams, seasonal workers on local vineyards and olive groves, townsfolk, farmers and retirees.

Education in the town was formally undertaken by the appointment of a head teacher and, as there was no schoolhouse built, the first teacher was given a tent with instructions to erect it for himself to house him until further accommodation could be found. Schooling was conducted in the town hall before World War II.

It is the most northerly, inland subregion of Great Southern, still Mediterranean in terms of dominant winter-spring rainfall, but with greater continentality, thus favoring Riesling, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. Which is why it is an area where wine is made and has wine tasting.

We continue to hike on passing the Great Tingle Tree and coming upon and going through the Valley of the Giants. We wander through the Heathland.

A heath or heathland is a shrubland habitat found mainly on low quality, acidic soils, and is characterised by open, low growing woody vegetation. There are some clear differences between heath and moorland. For example moorland has a very peaty topsoil, and it is also free-draining. Moorland is generally related to high-ground heaths with a cooler and damper climate.

Heaths are widespread worldwide. They form extensive and highly diverse communities across Australia in humid and sub-humid areas. Fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands.

Heathland is favoured where climatic conditions are typically warm and dry, particularly in summer, and soils acidic, of low fertility, and often sandy and very free-draining; mires do occur where drainage is poor, but are usually only small in extent. Heaths are dominated by low shrubs.

Heath vegetation is extremely plant-species rich, and heathlands of Australia are home to some 3,700 endemic or typical species in addition to numerous less restricted species.

The bird fauna of heathlands are usually cosmopolitan species of the region. In Australia the heathland avian fauna is dominated by nectar feeding birds such as Honey-eaters and lorikeets although numerous other birds from emus to eagles are also common in Australian heathlands. Australian heathlands are also home to the world's only nectar feeding terrestrial mammal: the Honey Possum. Heathlands are also an excellent habitat for insects including ants, moths, butterflies and wasps with many species being restricted entirely to it.

The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family of small to medium sized birds most common in Australia and New Guinea. Honeyeaters and the Australian chats make up the family Meliphagidae. In total there are 182 species in 42 genera, roughly half of them native to Australia, many of the remainder occupying New Guinea. A great many Australian plants are fertilized by honeyeaters, particularly the Proteaceae, Myrtaceae, and Epacridaceae.

Unlike the hummingbirds of America, honeyeaters do not have extensive adaptations for hovering flight, though smaller members of the family do hover hummingbird-style to collect nectar from time to time. In general, honeyeaters prefer to flit quickly from perch to perch in the outer foliage, stretching up or sideways or hanging upside down at need. Many genera have a highly developed brush-tipped tongue, longer in some species than others, frayed and fringed with bristles which soak up liquids readily. The tongue is flicked rapidly and repeatedly into a flower, the upper mandible then compressing any liquid out when the bill is closed. In addition to nectar, all or nearly all honeyeaters take insects and other small creatures

Lories and lorikeets are small to medium-sized arboreal parrots characterized by their specialized brush-tipped tongues for feeding on nectar of various blossoms and soft fruits, preferably berries. They are widely distributed throughout the Australasian region, including south-eastern Asia, Polynesia, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and Australia, and the majority have very brightly coloured plumage. Species with longer tapering tails are generally referred to as "lorikeets", while species with short blunt tails are generally referred to as "lories".

Lories and lorikeets have specialized brush-tipped tongues for feeding on nectar and soft fruits. They can feed from the flowers of about 5,000 species of plants and use their specialised tongues to take the nectar. The tip of their tongues have tufts of papillae (extremely fine hairs), which collect nectar and pollen.

Lorikeets have tapered wings and pointed tails that allow them to fly easily and display great agility. They also have strong feet and legs. They tend to be hyperactive and clownish in personality both in captivity and the wild.

The multi-coloured Rainbow Lorikeet was one of the species of parrots appearing in the first edition of The Parrots of the World and also in John Gould's lithographs of the Birds of Australia. Then and now, lories and lorikeets are described as some of the most beautiful species of parrot.

The Ultramarine Lorikeet is endangered. It is now one of the 50 rarest birds in the world. The Blue Lorikeet is classified as vulnerable. The introduction of European rats to the small island habitats of these birds is a major cause of their endangerment. Various conservation efforts have been made to relocate some of these birds to locations free of predation and habitat destruction.

Corymbia ficifolia or the red flowering gum also known as Albany red flowering gum is one of the most commonly planted ornamental trees in the broader eucalyptus family. It is native to a very small area of south coastal Western Australia to the east of Walpole but is not considered under threat in the wild. In nature the Red Flowering Gum prefers infertile, sandy soils but it is readily adaptable to most temperate locations, provided it is not exposed to severe frost or sustained tropical damp. It is difficult to graft but grows well from seed, typically taking about 7 years before it flowers for the first time and 15–20 years to reach something approaching its full size of anything between 2–8 m.

The Red Flowering Gum is a close relative of the West Australian Marri or Port Gregory gum (Corymbia calophylla). The Marri is widespread in southern WA. Although in the wild it can grow much larger than the red flowering gum.

As we keep hiking we finally come to Conspicuous Beach. It is beautiful and pristine. It is a known place for surfing because the swells are large enough for it. We hike up to Conspicuous Hill and look out over the beach for some gorgeous pictures of the rugged area. We keep hiking on to Rame Head Campsite. It is beautiful and there is a strong wind that comes over the hill along the campsite. I make sure to really hammer in the tent stakes tonight so my tent doesn't go "walking" away! What a beautiful day it has been. I look forward to this last week to really let it soak in.

Today I got in 2279 steps and 15 minutes of clearing trails to help out.

Time for a nice hot dinner and bed. I'm tired.

Patty emoticon emoticon emoticon





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5/6/13 8:15 A

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Weeelllllll..............I missed a couple weeks being up north but will pop back in anyway emoticon It was a very draining visit emotionally and workouts were only every 3 days instead of daily. But I'm going to try to get in at least one 60 minute workout Monday -Saturday this week. Plus walk 10,000 steps and climb 10 flights of stairs. That's down from where I was but I noticed that my knees were screaming at me when i got home and I'm pretty stiff and sore from the stress and having to sit in a hospital for hours at a time. So better jump back in a little slower and not kill myself!! emoticon

Totals for Sunday, May 6, my rest day, was 10,166 steps and 6 flights of stairs.

Which came first, the tornado or the travel trailer??


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LESLIE2561's Photo LESLIE2561 SparkPoints: (84,994)
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5/5/13 10:49 P

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I am going to continue in group 5 this week with exercise and movement adding up to at least 6000 steps a day. However, I would like to try for 6250 a day.

5/5 - 5868 steps
5/6 - 1421 steps (migraine)
5/7 - 671 steps (migraine)
5/8 - 4880 steps
5/9 - 7565 steps
5/10 - 6368 steps
5/11 - 10,178 steps

Total - 36,951 steps

(6000 x 7 = 42,000) (6250 x 7 = 43,750)

Total Steps for 6 Week Track - 41,747 + 39,239 + 34,973 + 43,396 + 39,426 + 36,951 = 235,732 (according to my fitbit that is about 100 miles)

Edited by: LESLIE2561 at: 5/12/2013 (00:22)
Leslie
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Eastern Standard Time



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IAMAGEMLOVER's Photo IAMAGEMLOVER Posts: 36,514
5/5/13 9:01 A

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6,238 steps taken week 5
At least I am improving. I am walking more in the house and feeling less pain. I am only wearing 2 pain patches instead of the 3. I start physical therapy tomorrow.

All I can do this week is improve on my steps taken and do the exercises given to me by my physical therapist. I am going to shoot for 10,000 steps in a week and the 1.5 hours of physical therapy this week. I hope to be cleared for the water again.

May 5--955 steps

May 6--1026 steps

May 7--1270 steps

May 8--1254 steps

May 9--3306 steps 2 floors climbed

May 10--2871 steps 3 floors climbed

May 11--1050 steps

Edited by: IAMAGEMLOVER at: 5/11/2013 (21:26)
I love SparkPeople

Today is the first day of the rest of my life.

I am responsible for my own happiness.

My name is Bonnie I live in CT ET

I went from 258 to 126 pounds and have maintained it since 12/28/12.

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EMMABE1's Photo EMMABE1 Posts: 17,796
5/4/13 5:28 P

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Week 6 – Bibbulmun Track Virtual Trek – is on my web site for you. (Exercise and trek notes)

1 – Go to chairexercisefun.com/ and click on the “challenges” button on the right hand side of the front page
2 – Open the “Bibbulmun Track Virtual Trek “ folder
3 – Read - Wk 6 Exercise brochure – you can download or print it if you choose.
4 – Select your exercise and step target
5 – Start moving, increasing your step count each week, through exercise and movement, and recording your exercise time and steps in the exercise thread
6 – Read the “Trek notes “for week 6 and see where you are going with your exercise. You can download or print it if you choose.
8 – Record you daily or weekly step count in the Wk 6 – Bibbulmun Track Virtual Trek Thread.
9 - Write a blog on what you have seen, experienced, eaten and/or done – tell me when its finished for a goodie .(optional)
Join in the Week 6 Bibbulmun Track Virtual Trek discussion
10 – There is a very special surprize on the last day of the trek for anyone who manages to finish all 6 weeks of the trek.
11 – HAVE FUN!! Any problems or questions – Please ask!!


Everyone smiles in the same language.

www.chairexercisefun.com


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