All of the studies are randomized controlled trials, the gold standard of science. All are published in respected, peer-reviewed journals.
A sample of them below
2. Samaha FF, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003.
Conclusion: The low-carb group lost significantly more weight (about 3 times as much). There was also a statistically significant difference in several biomarkers:
Triglycerides went down by 38 mg/dL in the LC group, compared to 7 mg/dL in the LF group.
Insulin sensitivity improved on LC, got slightly worse on LF.
Fasting blood glucose levels went down by 26 mg/dL in the LC group, only 5 mg/dL in the LF group.
Insulin levels went down by 27% in the LC group, but increased slightly in the LF group.
Overall, the low-carb diet had significantly more beneficial effects on weight and key biomarkers in this group of severely obese individuals.
3. Sondike SB, et al. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 2003.
Details: 30 overweight adolescents were randomized to two groups, a low-carb diet group and a low-fat diet group. This study went on for 12 weeks. Neither group was instructed to restrict calories.
Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 9.9 kg (21.8 lbs), while the low-fat group lost 4.1 kg (9 lbs). The difference was statistically significant.
Conclusion: The low-carb group lost significantly more (2.3 times as much) weight and had significant decreases in Triglycerides and Non-HDL cholesterol. Total and LDL cholesterol decreased in the low-fat group only.
15. Westman EC, et al. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrion & Metabolism (London), 2008.
Details: 84 individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to a low-carb, ketogenic diet or a calorie restricted low-glycemic diet. The study went on for 24 weeks.
Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost more weight (11.1 kg - 24.4 lbs) compared to the low-glycemic group (6.9 kg - 15.2 lbs).
Conclusion: The low-carb group lost significantly more weight than the low-glycemic group. There were several other important differences:
Hemoglobin A1c went down by 1.5% in the LC group, compared to 0.5% in the low-glycemic group.
HDL cholesterol increased in the LC group only, by 5.6 mg/dL.
Diabetes medications were either reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of the LC group, compared to 62% in the low-glycemic group.
Many other health markers like blood pressure and triglycerides improved in both groups, but the difference between groups was not statistically significant.
View the 20 other studies here - www.healthline.com/nutri