In developing countries with high rates of tuberculosis, a vaccine against the disease often is given at birth. The vaccine is not used routinely in the United States and most European countries because the risk of transmission in these countries is low, and because the vaccine is not very effective.
People with a positive skin test for TB (PPD) who have never received medication to prevent TB from becoming active should consider taking isoniazid (INH) for up to 9 months. Also people with HIV infection who live in parts of the world that have high rates of TB are encouraged to take isoniazid, even if they have a negative PPD.
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