At least 50% of people who survive bleeding esophageal varices are at risk of more bleeding during the next one to two years. The risk can be reduced by endoscopic and drug treatments.
If a TIPSS procedure or other shunt procedure is required, some blood will pass through the liver without being thoroughly detoxified by enzymes within the liver. Natural waste products in the blood can accumulate if the blood is not detoxified by the liver. Because of this some people who have had a TIPS procedure develop symptoms of confusion, called encephalopathy. Medication can reduce symptoms of encephalopathy.