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Thanksgiving Turkey Tips

Selecting, Cooking and Storing this Thanksgiving Favorite
  -- By Becky Hand, Licensed & Registered Dietitian
Is it your turn to host the annual Thanksgiving feast for the entire family? Tackling a turkey—without being traumatized—isn’t that tough. Here are the answers to the most common turkey questions.
 
What size turkey should I buy?
You’ll need about one pound per person, or a pound and a half per person if you have hearty eaters or want ample leftovers.
 
When should I buy the turkey?  
While the quality and taste of frozen and fresh turkey are quite similar, the keeping time is not. A frozen turkey can be purchased months in advance, but a fresh bird should be bought only 1 to 2 days ahead. 
 
What kind of turkey should I buy?
Personal preference usually dictates this choice. There are basically two types of raw birds to choose from at the grocery store:

1.      A pre-basted bird contains ingredients such as vegetable oil, broth and spices.
2.      An un-basted bird has had nothing added. 

USDA Grade A poultry has good shape, structure and fat covering, and is free of pinfeathers and defects, such as cuts and bruises. Grade A is the highest quality grade for poultry and is the most common grade found in stores. 

Should I buy an organic, Kosher or heritage turkey?
The USDA requires all turkeys that are labeled "organic" to be certified by the National Organic Program which ensures that animals are fed an organic, vegetarian diet, have access to the outdoors and aren't treated with hormones or antibiotics. (Note: The USDA does not allow the use of hormones in any turkey production.)

Kosher turkeys are raised in accordance with Jewish dietary laws. They are put through a salting process that keeps the meat moist and makes brining unnecessary.

"Heritage" turkeys are actually any of several older breeds that have not been cross-bred for the larger breast that is favored by most people. These turkeys are trickier to prepare properly but can be more flavorful than grocery-store turkeys. You'll have to special order this kind of bird or reserve one from a local farm. The term "heritage" is NOT regulated by the USDA so make sure you purchase this type of bird from a trusted source.

Is a "tom" better than a hen?
Age, not gender, is the determining factor of tenderness. All turkeys on the market are young, usually 4-5 months old. A hen generally weighs less than 16 pounds and a tom usually over 16 pounds.
 
How long will it take to defrost a turkey?
It is best to defrost your turkey in the refrigerator. The rule of thumb is to allow a minimum of 24 hours for every 4 pounds of turkey:
If you need to speed up the defrost time, it is safe to defrost the turkey in a large utility sink of cold water. Submerge the wrapped bird in cold water. If the wrapping is torn, place the bird in another plastic bag, close securely and then place in water. Change the water every 30 minutes to make sure the water remains cold. With this method, allow 30 minutes of defrost time per pound.
 
Turkeys can be thawed in the microwave oven. Since microwaves vary in what they can accommodate, check with the manufacturer’s instructions for the size that will fit in your oven, the minutes per pound and the power level to use when thawing.
 
Should I brine the turkey?
Brining is a process of soaking the raw turkey in a solution of salt, spices and other flavorings. The salt will cause the meat to absorb more water, which will keep it juicy during roasting. Many people swear by brining, but it adds a significant amount of sodium to the meat. If you're watching your sodium intake, brining may not be a good choice for you.
 
To save time, is it safe to stuff the turkey in advance of cooking?
NO! It may seem like a good idea to save time, but harmful bacteria can multiply in the stuffing and cause food poisoning. Turkeys should be stuffed only at the last minute. Dry stuffing ingredients can be prepared the day before, tightly covered and left at room temperature. The perishable items (butter, margarine, mushrooms, oysters, broth, cooked celery and onions) can be mixed and refrigerated. The ingredients can then be combined just before stuffing and cooking. (Discover safe ways to save time and prep early for your Thanksgiving feast.)
 
How long should I roast the turkey?
Preheat your oven to 325 degrees. Roasting times vary, from roughly 15-18 minutes per pound for an un-stuffed bird, to 18-24 minutes per pound for a stuffed bird. For complete directions, follow this Roasted Turkey recipe.
 
Can the turkey be cooked overnight at a lower temperature?
NO! Because of the low temperature (250 degrees), the turkey and stuffing can take more than 4 hours to reach a high enough temperature to destroy bacteria.
 
Can the turkey be partially roasted one day and finished roasting the next day?
NO! Interrupted cooking enhances the possibility of bacterial growth.
 
Can you roast the turkey the day before?
YES! In fact, more and more people are taking this route. However, for safety reasons, the cooked bird MUST be de-boned before being refrigerated. The carved meat should be stored in shallow containers. The meat can then be reheated in the regular oven the next day for approximately 10 minutes per pound. To prevent the meat from drying out, add the leftover meat drippings, gravy or turkey broth and cover with foil.
 
 How can you tell when the turkey is done?
Is deep fried turkey as unhealthy as it sounds?
While frying a turkey will add a little more fat, if the oil is at the correct temperature the bird will brown on the outside quickly and not soak up a large amount of excess oil. To keep the calories down, remove the skin before eating the meat, which will pack enough flavor on its own.

What should I do with the leftovers?
Once the turkey is removed from the oven, you have approximately 2 hours to serve it, eat it and get the leftovers refrigerated or frozen. Leftovers can keep in the refrigerator for about 3-4 days, but use stuffing and gravy within 1-2 days. Check out 7 delicious ways to use leftover turkey!
 
Sources
USDA, "Turkey Raised by the Rules," www.fsis.usda.gov, accessed on October 31, 2013.

USDA, "National Organic Program, Final Rule," www.ams.usda.gov, accessed on October 31, 2013.