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2/6/15 1:12 P

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Feb 6, 1952:
Elizabeth becomes queen


On this day in 1952, after a long illness, King George VI of Great Britain and Northern Ireland dies in his sleep at the royal estate at Sandringham. Princess Elizabeth, the oldest of the king's two daughters and next in line to succeed him, was in Kenya at the time of her father's death; she was crowned Queen Elizabeth II on June 2, 1953, at age 27.

From the start of her reign, Elizabeth understood the value of public relations and allowed her 1953 coronation to be televised, despite objections from Prime Minister Winston Churchill and others who felt it would cheapen the ceremony. Elizabeth, the 40th British monarch since William the Conqueror, has worked hard at her royal duties and become a popular figure around the world. In 2003, she celebrated 50 years on the throne, only the fifth British monarch to do so.

The queen's reign, however, has not been without controversy. She was seen as cold and out-of-touch following the 1996 divorce of her son, Prince Charles, and Princess Diana, and again after Diana's 1997 death in a car crash. Additionally, the role in modern times of the monarchy, which is largely ceremonial, has come into question as British taxpayers have complained about covering the royal family's travel expenses and palace upkeep. Still, the royals are effective world ambassadors for Britain and a huge tourism draw. Today, the queen, an avid horsewoman and Corgi dog lover, is one of the world's wealthiest women, with extensive real-estate holdings and art and jewelry collections.


from: This Day in History

Sandie from SC
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12/31/14 8:12 A

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AULD LANG SYNE DAY

Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians played Auld Lang Syne as a New Year’s Eve song for the first time on this night in 1929. Auld Lang Syne had been the band’s theme song long before 1929. However, this night was the start of a New Year’s Eve tradition as Lombardo’s famed orchestra played at the Hotel Roosevelt Grill in New York City to usher in the new year.


Where did it Auld begin? Scottish poet Robert Burns said he heard an old man singing the words, and wrote them down; but Burns is considered the original author. The literal translation means “old long since”; less literal: “days gone by”.

The writers and editors of Those Were the Days spend a lot of time with days gone by. So from all of us to all of you the world over:
Auld Lang Syne and Happy New Year!

from: Those Were the Days


Sandie from SC
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12/7/14 1:13 A

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December 7th 1941 Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor was one of the great defining moments in history. Attack on Pearl Harbor was suddenly done by Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941. America was attacked without warning and without provocation. More than 2,400 Americans died and 1,100 were wounded. Lot of families lost their loved ones due to this attack.

Sandie from SC
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10/23/14 7:30 A

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Thursday, October 23, 2014
CANNED FOOD DAY


How does that old saying go? We eat what we can and what we can’t we can. Well, without Nicolas Appert we wouldn’t be familiar with any part of that saying because he was the one who invented the canning process.

Nicolas Appert was born on this day in 1752 at Chalons-Sur-Marne, France. He was destined to become a great chef and confectioner -- and chemist and inventor. In 1809 the French government awarded Appert with twelve thousand francs for his contribution to the world. Nicolas Appert had, in his search to preserve food, invented a process of heating foods and sealing them in airtight containers. In 1812 he was bestowed with the title, Benefactor of Humanity. Just think, we still use his methods of food preservation today!

And, we wouldn’t want to forget another invention by Nicolas Appert: the bouillon cube. It was probably the first instant soup. Just add water. Then heat to boiling.

from: Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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8/14/14 2:49 P

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Thursday, August 14, 2014
YOU’RE ONLY A NUMBER DAY

Those of you who are American citizens can thank or blame Franklin D. Roosevelt for being identified by a number. It was on this day in 1935 that President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act into law. Your Social Security number is the only number that identifies you and only you.

How did this numbering of Americans come to pass? Social security was a campaign promise in the 1932 presidential election. Democrats pledged: “We advocate unemployment and old-age insurance under state laws.” FDR proposed the bill in June of 1934. Conservatives fought it, some believing it would “threaten the integrity of our institutions.” Most supported it, hoping that it would address the long-range problem of economic security for the aged through a system in which workers contributed to their own future retirement.

The original Act, signed by FDR, benefited only retiring workers. In 1939, amendments were added to the Social Security Act providing for dependents benefits and survivors benefits, plus the start of monthly benefits. The original payments were in lump sums. The first to receive the lump-sum benefit was Ernest Ackerman, a retired Cleveland motorman. He retired one day after the program began and his five-cent contribution turned into a lump-sum, 17-cent benefit. Mr. Ackerman was the first to benefit, but he was not the first to receive a Social Security number. In fact, no one knows who received the first SSN.

The U.S. Postal Service distributed the applications beginning in November 1936, numbers to be assigned at local post offices. The first three digits, the Area Number, assigned by geographical region, first represented the state in which they were issued, and since 1972, represent the ZIP code on the applicant’s mailing address ... not necessarily the state of residence. The second two numbers are the Group Number, further defining the Area Number, but were and are not assigned in consecutive order. Go figure... The last four numbers, the Serial Number, further define the Group Number and are distributed consecutively.

Since even newborns now have to have a Social Security Number, it is safe to say, “you’re only a number.”

from:hose Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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6/5/14 7:55 A

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HOPALONG CASSIDY DAY

Today is the anniversary of the birth of William Boyd, born in Cambridge, Ohio in1895.
Boyd is better known to movie-goers and TV audiences throughout the world as Hopalong Cassidy. He first played the role of the cowboy hero in the 1935 movie, Hop-a-long Cassidy.

What most of us don’t know is that Clarence E. Mulford, the author and creator of the original Hopalong, described him as a rather unsavory character rather than the straight-thinking, straight-shooting cowboy that William Boyd portrayed.

Boyd was Hopalong Cassidy in 66 films through 1948 (he bought the rights to the character in 1945), and then he starred as Hopalong in the successful TV series in the 1950s. For over twenty years, children and adults, alike, thrilled to the adventures of Hopalong Cassidy, his horse Topper, and his sidekick played by George ‘Gabby’ Hayes, and later, by Andy Clyde.

Although William Boyd starred in Cecil B. DeMille’s Volga Boatman; and in many silent movies and a slew of westerns other than the Hopalong Cassidy series; he will always be remembered as ‘Hoppy’.

As a child this was one of my favorite TV programs. I also liked to watch Roy Rogers and The Kate Smith Show.

from: Those Were the Days


Sandie from SC
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4/24/14 8:15 A

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Thursday, April 24, 2014
PIPELESS ORGAN DAY

It was on this date in Chicago, IL that Laurens Hammond announced news that would be favored by many churches across the United States. The news was the development of the pipeless organ -- and a granting of a U.S. patent for same. The year was 1934.
Hammond, a decades-old name in keyboard organs in churches, theaters, auditoriums and homes, is the same Hammond who fostered many of the developments that would make electronic keyboards so popular in modern music. The Hammond B-3 and B-5 organs, for example, became mainstays for many recording artists, while inventions in Hammond organ loud speaker development (the Hammond Leslie Tremelo speaker) produced still other important milestones that allowed small organs to emulate the big concert theater console organs.

Later, solid-state circuitry and computers allowed keyboards the flexibility to sound like other instruments, permitting the organist to play many instruments from the organ’s multiple keyboards.

And you thought there was an entire orchestra hiding in the closet ...

from: ThoseWeretheDays

Sandie from SC
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4/16/14 9:48 A

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It’s physically impossible for a pig to lift its head up and look to the sky.

In 1859, 24 rabbits were released in Australia. In 6 years the population grew to 2 million.

Leg bones of a bat are so thin that it can’t walk because of it.

Deer cannot eat hay.


Sandie from SC
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4/1/14 7:58 A

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Albert Einstein never learned to drive. And he couldn't tie his shoes either. The simple things we take for granted just didn't interest him. He would go days without eating and probably would have starved if it wasn't for his housekeeper.

Sandie from SC
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3/19/14 12:01 P

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Domestic cats can run at 50km/h.

The original title of the musical
“The West Side Story” was
“The East Side Story”.

Sharks are immune to cancer!

Between 1902 and 1907, the same
tiger killed 436 people in India.

Studies show that mosquitoes are attracted
to people who recently ate bananas

Sandie from SC
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3/19/14 8:40 A

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Dear God! Thanks for reminding me not to hold my nose when I sneeze!

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Edited by: SWEET-SUE at: 3/19/2014 (14:55)
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GMASANDIE's Photo GMASANDIE Posts: 45,203
3/15/14 1:44 A

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Is drinking fruit juice as good for you as eating fruit?

Short answer: No

Calorie for calorie, whole fruit provides more nutritional benefits than drinking the pure juice of that fruit. That's because when you liquefy fruit, stripping away the peel and dumping the pulp, many ingredients like fiber, calcium, vitamin C, and other antioxidants are lost. For comparison, a five-ounce glass of orange juice that contains 69 calories has .3 grams of dietary fiber and 16 milligrams of calcium, whereas an orange with the same number of calories packs 3.1 grams of fiber and 60 milligrams of calcium.


Sandie from SC
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3/13/14 5:07 A

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Thursday, March 13, 2014
UNCLE SAM DAY

Hey! Let’s take the day off! It’s Uncle Sam Day! On this day back in1852, the New York Lantern newspaper published an Uncle Sam cartoon for the first time. The drawing was the work of Frank Henry Bellew. Through the years, the caricature changed with Uncle Sam becoming symbolic of the U.S. being just like a favorite uncle. A prime example of this symbolism were U.S. Army posters that portrayed Uncle Sam pointing and saying, “I want you!” As a result, many of us joined his ranks.

Uncle Sam always wore a nifty suit of red, white and blue, a hat with stars and stripes down the trousers of both of his long legs. The origins of how he became known as Uncle Sam are varied, but include a dock worker wondering what the words “From U.S.” meant on shipping crates. Reportedly, he was told jokingly, “Oh, this is from your Uncle Sam."


from: Those Were the Days



Sandie from SC
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3/6/14 7:46 A

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Mar 6, 1899:
Bayer patents aspirin

On this day in 1899, the Imperial Patent Office in Berlin registers Aspirin, the brand name for acetylsalicylic acid, on behalf of the German pharmaceutical company Friedrich Bayer & Co.

Now the most common drug in household medicine cabinets, acetylsalicylic acid was originally made from a chemical found in the bark of willow trees. In its primitive form, the active ingredient, salicin, was used for centuries in folk medicine, beginning in ancient Greece when Hippocrates used it to relieve pain and fever. Known to doctors since the mid-19thcentury, it was used sparingly due to its unpleasant taste and tendency to damage the stomach.

In 1897, Bayer employee Felix Hoffman found a way to create a stable form of the drug that was easier and more pleasant to take. (Some evidence shows that Hoffman's work was really done by a Jewish chemist, Arthur Eichengrun, whose contributions were covered up during the Nazi era.) After obtaining the patent rights, Bayer began distributing aspirin in powder form to physicians to give to their patients one gram at a time. The brand name came from "a" for acetyl, "spir" from the spirea plant (a source of salicin) and the suffix "in," commonly used for medications. It quickly became the number-one drug worldwide.

Aspirin was made available in tablet form and without a prescription in 1915. Two years later, when Bayer's patent expired during the First World War, the company lost the trademark rights to aspirin in various countries. After the United States entered the war against Germany in April 1917, the Alien Property Custodian, a government agency that administers foreign property, seized Bayer's U.S. assets. Two years later, the Bayer company name and trademarks for the United States and Canada were auctioned off and purchased by Sterling Products Company, later Sterling Winthrop, for $5.3 million.

Bayer became part of IG Farben, the conglomerate of German chemical industries that formed the financial heart of the Nazi regime. After World War II, the Allies split apart IG Farben, and Bayer again emerged as an individual company. Its purchase of Miles Laboratories in 1978 gave it a product line including Alka-Seltzer and Flintstones and One-A-Day Vitamins. In 1994, Bayer bought Sterling Winthrop's over-the-counter business, gaining back rights to the Bayer name and logo and allowing the company once again to profit from American sales of its most famous product.

from: This Day in History

Sandie from SC
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3/4/14 6:01 A

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"In 1939. the New York Times predicted that television would fail because people wouldn't have time to stop and stare at a screen."

Sandie from SC
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3/2/14 7:58 A

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Q: What was the first official White House car?
A: A 1909 White Steamer, ordered by President Taft.

Q: Where was the first drive-in restaurant?
A: Royce Hailey's Pig Stand opened in Dallas in 1921.

Q: Who opened the first drive-in gas station?
A: Gulf opened up the first station in Pittsburgh in 1913.

Q: What city was the first to use parking meters?
A: Oklahoma City, on July 16, 1935

Sandie from SC
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2/26/14 7:54 A

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Multiply

111 111 111 x 111 111 111 =

12 345 678 987 654 321


Sandie from SC
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2/23/14 8:17 A

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STARS, STRIPES & MARINES DAY

It was February 23, 1945 and four days of bitter battle had taken its toll on the 28th Regiment of the Fifth Marine Division of the U.S. Marines. Their task had been to neutralize the defenses and scale the heavily fortified Mount Surabachi. The volcanic peak, at the southern tip of the Japanese island of Iwo Jima, was one of the first objectives of the Marines’ invasion of this small, strategic island, 750 miles south of Tokyo.

Although losses were heavy, the Marine platoon succeeded in its mission and reached the top of Mount Surabachi on this day. Victory was triumphant -- as the famous photograph (by Joe Rosenthal) of these Marines raising the American flag portrayed.

The photograph inspired the Marine Corps Memorial, Iwo Jima Statue which now stands near Arlington National Cemetery, the largest cast bronze statue in the world. This monument is dedicated to all U.S. Marines (since 1775) who have given their lives for their country.

As the flag was being raised, Navy Secretary James Forrestal was standing on the beachhead below. When he saw Old Glory waving in the breeze, he told Lt. General Holland M. Smith, “The raising of that flag on Surabachi means a Marine Corps for the next 500 years.”

from: Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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2/22/14 9:50 A

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"If you sneeze to hard, you can break a rib. If you, however, try to stop a sneeze buy holding your nose with your fingers, you can cause a burst of an artery in your head or your neck and die. If you try to violently keep your eyes open during sneezing, they can pop out of their sockets."


Sandie from SC
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2/21/14 7:18 A

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How much money does an American athlete earn from the U.S. Olympic Committee
for winning a gold medal in the Olympics?

$5,000
$25,000
$50,000
Nothing




Answer:
The U.S. Olympic Committee pays out a $25,000 bonus per gold medal, $15,000 for silver and $10,000 for bronze. The money does not come from the U.S. government. The U.S. Olympic Committee gets its money from the sale of broadcast rights, licensing and trademark income, and corporate sponsorships. Those bonuses pale in comparison to some other nations – Russia pays $114,000 for a gold, and Kazakhstan leads the list with a $250,000 gold medal bonus.

Sandie from SC
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2/18/14 9:49 A

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What is the Olympic motto?

Run, Jump, Win
Faster, Higher, Stronger
Courage, Grace, Strength
Honor, Bravery, Integrity





Answer:
The Olympic motto is made up of three Latin words: Citius, Altius, Fortius, which is Latin for
"Faster, Higher, Stronger."

The motto was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin on the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. Coubertin borrowed it from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest who, amongst other things, was an athletics enthusiast. Coubertin said "These three words represent a programme of moral beauty. The aesthetics of sport are intangible." The motto was introduced in 1924 at the Olympic Games in Paris.



Sandie from SC
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2/15/14 9:16 A

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What does the K in KMart stand for?

Answer:

The K stands for Kresge, as in Sebastian S. Kresge, founder of the S.S. Kresge dime store chain. Kresge retired as president of the company in 1929, long before there was any such thing as a K mart. But his name continued to grace the firm's stores.

S.S. Kresge Corp. opened the first Kmart store on March 1, 1962, in Garden City, Michigan, just four months before the first Walmart opened.

A total of eighteen Kmart stores opened that year. Company founder Kresge died on
October 18, 1966. In 1977, S. S. Kresge Corporation changed its name to Kmart Corporation.


I remember as a kid going to the Kresge five and dime store.




Sandie from SC
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2/11/14 7:44 A

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Tuesday, February 11, 2014
INVENTOR’S DAY

Who could have guessed that when little Thomas Alva Edison entered the world on this day in 1847 the world would never be the same.

Little Al (his folks called him Alva or Al) was a curious child, always asking questions. When he didn’t get an answer, he’d try to figure it out for himself by experimenting. His incessant questions exasperated his school teacher so much that Al’s mother had to take him out of school after only three months. A lack of formal education didn’t stop Thomas Edison. He is now considered the greatest inventor in history. In 1928, the U.S. Congress awarded a gold medal to Thomas Edison for “development and application of inventions that have revolutionized civilization in the last century.”

His first invention was an automated telegraph message machine. He attached a gadget to a clock that would send a signal even if he was asleep. From then on, Edison invented more than 2000 gadgets, holding 1,093 patents, some which improved the inventions of others, like the telephone, typewriter, motion pictures, the electric generator and electric-powered trains. He was very close to inventing the radio; he predicted the use of atomic energy, and received $40,000 for his stock-ticker patents. And Al was only going to ask for $5,000, hoping to get $3,000.

One of the world’s most original inventions, the phonograph, was Thomas Edison’s favorite.

He is also credited with inventions such as the storage battery, a cement mixer, the dictaphone, a duplicating machine ... even a way to make synthetic rubber.

Edison received so many awards for his accomplishments that he once joked, “I have to measure them by the quart.”

But, the invention that virtually changed the world forever was his electric incandescent light bulb.

A century later, the genius of Thomas Alva Edison still permeates every part of our lives. He died October 18, 1931, but if he was alive today, we are sure he would still remain humble and insist that his genius was “one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.”


from: Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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2/9/14 8:15 A

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Sunday, February 9, 2014
WEATHER BUREAU DAY

In 1870, the United States Weather Bureau was authorized by Congress. We think people always just sat around and talked about the weather, but it took an act of Congress to do something about it! The weather bureau is officially known as the National Weather Service (NWS) and is a department of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The National Weather Service protects the life and property of U.S. citizensby issuing forecasts and warnings for natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and severe weather conditions. NWS communicates this information to the populace through an intricate and varied network. The NOAA Weather Wire Service or NWWS is the primary satellite communications system for NWS transmission. Warnings and other services are delivered in this manner to newspapers, radio and TV stations and emergency agencies. More than 6400 individual products are transmitted every day.

NWS also generates data to be delivered to the public over a nationwide network of FM radio transmitter sites. Most of the U.S. including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam and American Samoa can receive these broadcasts. Cable TV weather channels and AM radio channels also broadcast this information.

No matter how you learn the weather forecast, the age old question still seems to be, “So how’s the weather?”

from: Those Were he Days

Sandie from SC
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1/30/14 8:59 A

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Thursday, January 30, 2014
HI-YO, SILVER DAY

The famous radio western, The Lone Ranger, was heard for the first time on this day in 1933. The program ran for 2,956 episodes and came to an end in late 1954.
George Seaton (Stenius) was the first voice of the Lone Ranger. Jack Deeds and Earle Graser followed in the role. However, it was Brace Beemer who is best remembered as former Texas Ranger, John Reid. He played the part of the black-masked ranger, fighting for frontier justice for thirteen consecutive years.

Riding alongside the Lone Ranger was Tonto, the Indian who had rescued him from death and nursed him back to health after an outlaw ambush had massacred his entire company. The part of Indian scout, Tonto, was played for almost the entire run by a bald-headed Irishman named John Todd. Jim Jewell also fondly referred to the Lone Ranger as ‘kemo sabe’. Jewell produced and directed the series for many years.

Created by Fran Striker (of The Lone Ranger comic-book character fame) and George Trendle, this Western radio adventure series had an interesting twist. The Lone Ranger had a nephew, Dan, who was the father of Britt Reid, another avenger of crime known as The Green Hornet. There was no coincidence that Striker and Trendle also were the creators of The Green Hornet.

But no show began as dramatically as The Lone Ranger with Rossini’sWilliam Tell Overture and the voice of announcers, Fred Foy, Harold Golder, Bob Hite, Brace Beemer, Harold True or Charles Woods proclaiming, “A fiery horse with the speed of light, a cloud of dust and a hearty ‘Hi-yo, Silver!’ The Lone Ranger rides again!”

And, at the end of each show, with a “Hi-yo, Silver, away!” and the sound of hoof beats fading into the distance, you would almost believe that there was a silver bullet lying by your radio.

As a youngster, I loved the Lone Ranger


Sandie from SC
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1/27/14 6:50 A

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National Geographic Society founded

On January 27, 1888, the National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C., for "the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge."

The 33 men who originally met and formed the National Geographic Society were a diverse group of geographers, explorers, teachers, lawyers, cartographers, military officers and financiers. All shared an interest in scientific and geographical knowledge, as well as an opinion that in a time of discovery, invention, change and mass communication, Americans were becoming more curious about the world around them. With this in mind, the men drafted a constitution and elected as the Society's president a lawyer and philanthropist named Gardiner Greene Hubbard. Neither a scientist nor a geographer, Hubbard represented the Society's desire to reach out to the layman.

Nine months after its inception, the Society published its first issue of National Geographic magazine. Readership did not grow, however, until Gilbert H. Grosvenor took over as editor in 1899. In only a few years, Grosvenor boosted circulation from 1,000 to 2 million by discarding the magazine's format of short, overly technical articles for articles of general interest accompanied by photographs. National Geographic quickly became known for its stunning and pioneering photography, being the first to print natural-color photos of sky, sea and the North and South Poles.

The Society used its revenues from the magazine to sponsor expeditions and research projects that furthered humanity's understanding of natural phenomena. In this role, the National Geographic Society has been instrumental in making possible some of the great achievements in exploration and science. To date, it has given out more than 1,400 grants, funding that helped Robert Peary journey to the North Pole, Richard Byrd fly over the South Pole, Jacques Cousteau delve into the sea and Jane Goodall observe wild chimpanzees, among many other projects.

Today, the National Geographic Society is one of the world's largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions. National Geographic continues to sell as a glossy monthly, with a circulation of around 9 million. The Society also sees itself as a guardian of the planet's natural resources, and in this capacity, focuses on ways to broaden its reach and educate its readers about the unique relationship that humans have with the earth.

from: This Day in History

Sandie from SC
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1/17/14 10:33 A

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Friday, January 17, 2014
CABLE CAR DAY

Andrew Smith Hallidie of San Francisco, California received a patent for a cable car system on this day in 1871. The public transportation system was put into operation in the city by the bay in 1873, providing a fast, safe way to travel up and down San Francisco’s steep hills.

Now, Hallidie didn’t just wake up one day and invent his cable car system. This was one situation that proves the truth of the old adage, ‘necessity is the mother of invention.’ Hallidie realized the necessity for the cable car system when he saw a loaded horse-drawn San Francisco streetcar slide backwards on a slippery hill. It was a summer day in 1869, but the cobblestones were wet from the usual San Francisco dampness. The heavily weighted car dragged five of the horses to their deaths. The catastrophe prompted Andrew Hallidie and his partners to do something to prevent this from happening again.

Coincidentally, Hallidie already had the basic product needed to produce his cable car system. His father had filed the first patent in Great Britain for the manufacture of wire rope. Although Andrew was born in England, he had moved to the U.S. in 1852. As a young man, he was able to use his father’s new, tough rope when he designed and built a suspension bridge across Sacramento’s American River. He also had used the wire rope to pull heavy ore cars out of underground gold mines on tracks. The light bulb went on and his wire-rope manufacturing plant (that he had already moved to San Francisco) began the process of making the new cable car system.

A little known fact is that Mr. Hallidie didn’t call them cable cars at first. Originally, one took a trip on ‘the endless wire rope way.’ The cars ran on rails, pulled by an endless steel cable moving on a slot beneath the street surface. In fact, the San Francisco landmark and tourist attraction works the same way today.

Visitors and commuters alike still consider their cable cars a true San Francisco treat.

from: Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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1/3/14 11:02 A

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Friday, January 3, 2014
MARCH OF DIMES DAY

The March of Dimes was established on this day in 1938 --by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt-- to fight poliomyelitis (Roosevelt himself was afflicted with polio). The organization was originally called the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (as the disease was commonly known).

The March of Dimes accomplished its mission within 20 years. Research led by Dr. Jonas Salk and supported by funds (those marching little dimes) raised annually by thousands of volunteers, resulted in the announcement in April 1955 that the Salk polio vaccine was “safe, potent and effective.” The foundation also supported the research that led to the Sabin oral vaccine, another safe, effective polio preventative discovered by Dr. Albert B. Sabin.

Following the victory over infantile paralysis, the March of Dimes turned its attention to conquering the largest killer and crippler of children: the mental and physical problems that are present at birth.

Today, The March of Dimes raises funds to support research, education and community-based programs to prevent birth defects and help lower the rate of premature births and infant mortality. The March of Dimes is one of the 10 largest voluntary health agencies in the United States, with 101 chapters nationwide


from: ThoseWeretheDays

Sandie from SC
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12/31/13 8:35 A

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Tuesday, December 31, 2013
AULD LANG SYNE DAY

Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians played Auld Lang Syne as a New Year’s Eve song for the first time on this night in1929. Auld Lang Syne had been the band’s theme song long before 1929. However, this night was the start of a New Year’s Eve tradition as Lombardo’s famed orchestra played at the Hotel Roosevelt Grill in New York City to usher in the new year.

Where did it Auld begin? Scottish poet Robert Burns said he heard an old man singing the words, and wrote them down; but Burns is considered the original author. The literal translation means “old long since”; less literal: “days gone by”.

The writers and editors of Those Were the Days spend a lot of time with days gone by. So from all of us to all of you the world over: Auld Lang Syne and Happy New Year!

Sandie from SC
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12/27/13 6:09 A

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Dec 27, 1932:
Radio City Music Hall opens

At the height of the Great Depression, thousands turn out for the opening of Radio City Music Hall, a magnificent Art Deco theater in New York City. Radio City Music Hall was designed as a palace for the people, a place of beauty where ordinary people could see high-quality entertainment. Since its 1932 opening, more than 300 million people have gone to Radio City to enjoy movies, stage shows, concerts, and special events.

Radio City Music Hall was the brainchild of the billionaire John D. Rockefeller, Jr., who decided to make the theater the cornerstone of the Rockefeller Complex he was building in a formerly derelict neighborhood in midtown Manhattan.

In its first four decades, Radio City Music Hall alternated as a first-run movie theater and a site for gala stage shows. More than 700 films have premiered at Radio City Music Hall since 1933. In the late 1970's, the theater changed its format and began staging concerts by popular music artists. The Radio City Music Hall Christmas Spectacular, which debuted in 1933, draws more than a million people annually. The show features the high-kicking Rockettes, a precision dance troupe that has been a staple at Radio City since the 1930's.

In 1999, the Hall underwent a seven-month, $70 million restoration. Today, Radio City Music Hall remains the largest indoor theater in the world.

from: This Day in History

Sandie from SC
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CHURCHILL DAY

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born (prematurely) on this day in 1874. He became a British statesman, soldier, and author -- and the first man to be made an honorary citizen of the United States (by an act of Congress on April 9, 1963).

A graduate of Sandhurst Military Academy, Churchill fought in India, the Sudan and South Africa. In 1900 he was elected to the British Parliament. He was the first Lord of the Admiralty (1911-15) in World War I until discredited by the failure of the Dardanelles campaign, which he had championed.

Churchill later served in several cabinet positions in the Liberal government including Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1924 to 1929. Out of office from 1929 to 1939, Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of Nazi Germany.

In 1940, seven months after the outbreak of World War II, Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain as prime minister. Churchill's stirring oratory, his energy, and his refusal to make peace with Hitler were crucial to maintaining British resistance.

After the fall of France (on June 22, 1940), Germany intended to defeat the British Royal Air Force (RAF). In July, the German Luftwaffe began to bomb British airfields and ports. By September, the Luftwaffe had begun to make nightly raids on London. The RAF fought bravely but were badly outnumbered. However, they still managed to hold off the Luftwaffe. Churchill expressed his nation's gratitude to its airmen: Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.

After the post-war Labour party victory in 1945, Churchill became leader of the opposition. In 1951 he was again elected prime minister. Two years later he was knighted. That same year he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for ...his mastery of historical and biographical presentation and for his brilliant oratory...

Sir Winston Churchill died in London on January 24, 1965. He is already recorded in our history as one of the greatest statesmen and leaders of the 20th century.

from: Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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Did you know that there are at least three American towns named after Thanksgiving dinner's main course? There's Turkey, Texas, with 496 residents; Turkey Creek, Louisiana, with 357 residents, and Turkey, North Carolina, with 267 residents. There are also eight places and townships named Cranberry, and 20 places named Plymouth, after the location of the first Thanksgiving.

Sandie from SC
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Nov 23, 1936:
First issue of Life is published

On November 23, 1936, the first issue of the pictorial magazine Life was published, featuring a cover photo of the Fort Peck Dam by Margaret Bourke-White.

Life actually had its start earlier in the 20th century as a different kind of magazine: a weekly humor publication, not unlike today's The New Yorker in its use of tart cartoons, humorous pieces and cultural reporting. When the original Life folded during the Great Depression, the influential American publisher Henry Luce bought the name and re-launched the magazine as a picture-based periodical on this day in 1936. By this time, Luce had already enjoyed great success as the publisher of Time, a weekly news magazine.

From his high school days, Luce was a newsman, serving with his friend Briton Hadden as managing editors of their school newspaper. This partnership continued through their college years at Yale University, where they acted as chairmen and managing editors of the Yale Daily News, as well as after college, when Luce joined Hadden at The Baltimore News in 1921. It was during this time that Luce and Hadden came up with the idea for Time. When it launched in 1923, it was with the intention of delivering the world's news through the eyes of the people who made it.

Whereas the original mission of Time was to tell the news, the mission of Life was to show it. In the words of Luce himself, the magazine was meant to provide a way for the American people "to see life; to see the world; to eyewitness great events ... to see things thousands of miles away... to see and be amazed; to see and be instructed... to see, and to show..." Luce set the tone of the magazine with Margaret Bourke-White's stunning cover photograph of the Fort Peck Dam, which has since become an icon of the 1930's and the great public works completed under President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.

Life was an overwhelming success in its first year of publication. Almost overnight, it changed the way people looked at the world by changing the way people could look at the world. Its flourish of images painted vivid pictures in the public mind, capturing the personal and the public, and putting it on display for the world to take in. At its peak, Life had a circulation of over 8 million and it exerted considerable influence on American life in the beginning and middle of the 20th century.

With picture-heavy content as the driving force behind its popularity,the magazine suffered as television became society's predominant means of communication. Life ceased running as a weekly publication in 1972, when it began losing audience and advertising dollars to television. In 2004, however, it resumed weekly publication as a supplement to U.S. newspapers. At its re-launch, its combined circulation was once again in the millions

from: This Day in History

Sandie from SC
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11/10/13 7:26 A

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USMC Day

USMC Day celebrates the birth of the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Corps were created during the Revolutionary War.

The Continental Congress of the newly created United States of America, authorized the creation of the Continental Marines on November 10, 1775. It was later renamed the U.S. Marine Corps. It is often abbreviated as USMC.

The Marine Corps has proudly participated in every war that has involved the United States.

If you see a Marine today, thank them for their contributions to protecting our country. Active or retired, they deserve our thanks and appreciation.


Sandie from SC
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Nov 8, 1895:
German scientist discovers X-rays

On this day in 1895, physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845-1923) becomes the first person to observe X-rays, a significant scientific advancement that would ultimately benefit a variety of fields, most of all medicine, by making the invisible visible. Rontgen's discovery occurred accidentally in his Wurzburg, Germany, lab, where he was testing whether cathode rays could pass through glass when he noticed a glow coming from a nearby chemically coated screen. He dubbed the rays that caused this glow X-rays because of their unknown nature.

Rontgen's discovery was labeled a medical miracle and X-rays soon became an important diagnostic tool in medicine, allowing doctors to see inside the human body for the first time without surgery. In 1897, X-rays were first used on a military battlefield, during the Balkan War, to find bullets and broken bones inside patients.

During the 1930s, 40s and 50s many American shoe stores featured shoe-fitting fluoroscopes that used to X-rays to enable customers to see the bones in their feet. It wasn't until the 1950s that this practice was determined to be risky business. Wilhelm Rontgen received numerous accolades for his work, including the first Nobel Prize in physics in 1901, yet he remained modest and never tried to patent his discovery. Today, X-ray technology is widely used in medicine, material analysis and devices such as airport security scanners.


from: This Day in History

Sandie from SC
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11/1/13 6:51 A

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Friday, November 1, 2013
FACE MASK DAY

For as long as ice hockey has been played - since 1855 in North America, and the 16th century in the Netherlands - goalies have been getting their faces smashed by flying hockey pucks.

On this day in 1959, Jacques Plante had had enough! The goalie for the Montreal Canadiens had been hit again and had to have seven more stitches added to his face. This time, however, he returned to the ice wearing a plastic face mask. Plante had made it out of fiberglass and resin. His design was so popular, that goalies throughout the National Hockey League followed suit.

The face mask is now standard issue. Thanks to Jacques Plante, goalies have more teeth and we hardly ever know what they really look like.



Sandie from SC
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10/28/13 6:35 A

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Oct 28, 1965:

Gateway Arch completed

On this day in 1965, construction is completed on the Gateway Arch, a spectacular 630-foot-high parabola of stainless steel marking the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial on the waterfront of St. Louis, Missouri.

The Gateway Arch, designed by Finnish-born, American-educated architect Eero Saarinen, was erected to commemorate President Thomas Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and to celebrate St. Louis' central role in the rapid westward expansion that followed. As the market and supply point for fur traders and explorers—including the famous Meriwether Lewis and William Clark—the town of St. Louis grew exponentially after the War of 1812, when great numbers of people began to travel by wagon train to seek their fortunes west of the Mississippi River. In 1947-48, Saarinen won a nationwide competition to design a monument honoring the spirit of the western pioneers. In a sad twist of fate, the architect died of a brain tumor in 1961 and did not live to see the construction of his now-famous arch, which began in February 1963. Completed in October 1965, the Gateway Arch cost less than $15 million to build. With foundations sunk 60 feet into the ground, its frame of stressed stainless steel is built to withstand both earthquakes and high winds. An internal tram system takes visitors to the top, where on a clear day they can see up to 30 miles across the winding Mississippi and to the Great Plains to the west. In addition to the Gateway Arch, the Jefferson Expansion Memorial includes the Museum of Westward Expansion and the Old Courthouse of St. Louis, where two of the famous Dred Scott slavery cases were heard in the 1860s.

Today, some 4 million people visit the park each year to wander its nearly 100 acres, soak up some history and take in the breathtaking views from Saarinen's gleaming arch


Sandie from SC
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10/17/13 5:30 A

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fyi: The term “junk food” was initially used in the 1960s butwas popularized during the following decade when the song “Junk Food Junkie” reached the top of the charts in 1976




Sandie from SC
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10/16/13 7:55 A

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fyi:
The Tootsie Roll is named after its creator Leo Hirshfield’s daughter Clara, whose nickname was Tootsie. It was the first penny candy that was individually wrapped. During WWII, Tootsie Rolls were placed in soldiers’ ration kits because it could survive various weather conditions

Sandie from SC
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10/8/13 10:13 A

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1871 Chicago Fire


When Mrs. O’Leary’s cow kicked over a lantern in the barn on this day in 1871, it was no laughing matter. The barn, on DeKoven Street in Chicago, caught fire. The fire spread, scorching almost four square miles,
killing about 300 people and leaving a path of destruction valued at over two hundred million dollars -- a lot of dollars for that time.

Of course, Patrick & Mrs. O’Leary’s barn was destroyed; as were 17,450 other buildings, leaving almost 99,000 people homeless. The city of Chicago was virtually leveled. And out of the ashes, a phoenix, in the guise of a steel and concrete Chicago, rose -- all because of one cow.

Now, more than 125 years later, a history buff, Richard Bales, says it may not have been Mrs. O’Leary’s cow, after all. It seems that Daniel ‘Peg Leg’ Sullivan, a neighbor of the O’Leary’s, was in the barn feeding his mother’s cow. He either kicked over a lantern or dropped a match or pipe, setting the famous fire. Sullivan, who had been questioned about the fire, said he was across the street when he saw the fire break out. A two-story building would have blocked his view. So, Bales theorizes that Sullivan lied and was the cause of the fire, rather than Mrs. O’Leary’s cow.

You’ll have to draw your own conclusion about the Great Chicago Fire.

From: Janey's Daily Dose

Sandie from SC
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9/16/13 8:08 A

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Monday, September 16, 2013
MAYFLOWER DAY

On this day, in the year 1620, 102 passengers and crew set sail on the ocean blue from Plymouth, England.

Their destination was the New World. And, although they encountered stormy weather and treacherous seas, this hearty group of 41 men, the rest, women and children; half religious dissenters and half entrepreneurs, made it to Provincetown, Massachusetts on November 21, 1620.

A month later, the Plymouth Colony was founded by the passengers of the Mayflower.

from: Those Were the Days



Sandie from SC
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9/13/13 4:55 A

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Friday, September 13, 2013
CANDY KISSES DAY

Pull the little paper sticking out of the foil. That’s right. Now carefully unwrap the silver foil. Voila! A milk-chocolate delight; and just one of the many chocolate products produced by the Hershey Chocolate Company.

Milton S. Hershey was born on this day in 1857. By the time he was in his mid-30s he had developed the ’Great American Chocolate Bar’-- or Hershey Bar as it is known throughout the world. This bar of solid milk chocolate became the foundation of his company and his fortune; and the foundation of Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Milton Hershey would be proud to know that the sweet cocoa smell of chocolate still permeates his hometown and home of the Hershey Chocolate Factory.

He would also find that some Hershey hotel guest rooms include cocoa butter soap as an amenity. And the street lights are in the shape of chocolate candy kisses.

frpmL Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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9/10/13 12:12 A

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Tuesday, September 10, 2013
GUNSMOKE DAY


Actor James Arness brought Marshall Matt Dillon to life on this night in1955. Gunsmoke debuted on CBS-TV and went on to become the longest-running (20 years) series on television. The pioneer in adult westerns also starred Milburn Stone as Doc Adams, Amanda Blake as Miss Kitty Russell, and Dennis Weaver as Chester Goode. Other well-known performers joined the cast throughout the years -- Ken Curtis as Festus Hagan and Burt Reynolds as Quint Asper, the town blacksmith, were two favorites.

Gunsmoke had enjoyed a radio run of three years with William Conrad (Cannon) playing Marshall Dillon before the TV version went on the air. The two ran simultaneously for six more years. An interesting note: CBS’ first choice for the role of the resolute, determined Matt Dillon was John Wayne. Wayne did not want to become involved with a weekly TV show at the time and suggested his friend, James Arness. The suggestion was magic. Arness, the only cast member other than Milburn Stone to stay in the role for the full twenty years, became Matt Dillon. The casting couldn’t have been better.

The show was saved from cancellation in the 1960s when its popularity had waned. CBS owner William S. Paley, a fan of Gunsmoke, demanded the the western be put on the fall schedule.

Not only was Gunsmoke the longest-running series with a regular cast of characters; but when it finally did meet its demise, it was the last of the network Westerns to go.


from: Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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9/9/13 12:19 A

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Monday, September 9, 2013
COLONEL SANDERS DAY


Celebrating his 6th birthday (he was born in 1890) on this day, Harland Sanders had no way of knowing that he was destined to become one of the most recognizable men in the world. A short time after his birthday, his father died, and a very young boy became his mother’s support system. He took care of his baby brother and sister and did the cooking while his mother went to work ... and he became quite an accomplished cook in quick order.
After his mother remarried when he was 12, he went to work at a multitude of different jobs, ending up operating a gas station in Corbin, Kentucky. It was here, at the age of 40, that Harland started cooking seriously. Using recipes he had learned at the tender age of six, he would prepare meals for hungry travelers serving them in his gas-station living quarters. His food was so popular that he finally had to open a restaurant. Over the next decade, Sanders tried and tested, and again, tried and tested his fried chicken recipe until he perfected the 11 herbs and spices that made up his secret blend that is still tempting taste-buds in Kentucky, and now, throughout the world.

Sanders’ cooking had such a following that, in 1935, he was made a Kentucky Colonel for his contributions to Kentucky cuisine. Four years later his restaurant was listed inAdventures in Good Eating by Duncan Hines. However, it wasn’t until 1955, when an interstate highway was to bypass Corbin, Kentucky, and Harland Sanders was living on only $105 a month from Social Security, that he took to the road to franchise his chicken recipe and restaurant concept.

The first franchises were established by a handshake. Sanders traveled across the United States, stopping at restaurants to fry up batches of his chicken. If the owner and employees liked the dish, they shook Sanders’ hand, and paid him a nickel for every chicken they sold. By 1964, there were over 600 of the Colonel’s franchises in the U.S. and Canada. The 74-year-old Sanders sold his interest that year for $2,000,000, remaining on as its spokesperson until his death in 1980.

The image of the Kentucky Colonel still graces the signage at thousands of restaurants throughout the world. Harland Sanders would be pleased to know that we’re still enjoying his special flavors every time we order a bucket of original recipe, crispy crust or tender-roast chicken from KFC.


from: Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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9/6/13 7:59 A

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DINNER, NEWS AND WALTER DAY

Walter Cronkite started showing up in living rooms during the dinner hour, starting this night in (Sepember 6) 1963 as anchor of the CBS Evening News (a job he took over from Douglas Edwards on April 16, 1962). Previous to this night, CBS Evening News had been shown from 7:30-7:45 p.m. and 7:15-7:30 p.m.

A familiar face to TV audiences, Walter Cronkite had been the host of You Are There, a CBS Sunday night program that ran from 1953 through 1957. A CBS news correspondent, Walter Cronkite served as reporter, host, and anchorman as major events in history were reenacted. Those who were viewers of You Are There can probably still recite Walter’s closing lines: “What sort of a day was it? A day like all days, filled with those events that alter and illuminate our times ... and you were there.”

His CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite won a multitude of Emmy Awards. Walter, himself, took home several individual Emmys for Outstanding Achievement Within Regularly Scheduled News Programs; specifically, for The Watergate Affair and Coverage of the Shooting of Governor Wallace in 1972-1973; and Solzhenitsyn, a CBS News Special in 1974. When the Emmy Awards were presented on September 9, 1979, Walter Cronkite received the coveted ATAS Governor’s Award.

Walter Cronkite, voted the ‘most trusted man in America’, left "CBS Evening News" on March 6, 1981. Throughout his retirement years, Cronkite continued to report special news events. On July 17, 2009, Walter Cronkite and news as we knew it died. "And that's the way it is...”


from, Those Were the Days

Sandie from SC
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9/5/13 6:30 A

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Thursday, September 5, 2013

RED CROSS DAY

The first disaster relief provided by the American Red Cross benefited thousands of fire victims left destitute this day by the Great Fire of 1881.
It had been a long hot summer in the ‘thumb-area’ of Michigan and small forest fires were burning. A southwest gale fanned the flames into an inferno. The fire raged for three days, scorching over a million acres. 282 people died in the blaze.

The American Association for the Relief of Misery on the Battlefields was a result of the International Red Cross and the forerunner of the American Association of the Red Cross. Clara Barton was instrumental in establishing the American chapter in 1881.

Over one hundred nations now have Red Cross associations. Each national society carries on its own program; however, all are united in their aim to prevent misery in time of war or peace and serve all people, regardless of race, nationality or religion.

The Red Cross flag (white background with a red cross) is the reverse of Switzerland’s flag where the first Red Cross was founded in 1863 ... and that’s how the organization got its name.

from: Those Were the Days


Sandie from SC
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9/2/13 12:24 A

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First ATM opens for business

On this day, September 2, in 1969, America's first automatic teller machine (ATM) makes its public debut, dispensing cash to customers at Chemical Bank in Rockville Center, New York. ATMs went on to revolutionize the banking industry, eliminating the need to visit a bank to conduct basic financial transactions. By the 1980s, these money machines had become widely popular and handled many of the functions previously performed by human tellers, such as check deposits and money transfers between accounts. Today, ATMs are as indispensable to most people as cell phones and e-mail.

Several inventors worked on early versions of a cash-dispensing machine, but Don Wetzel, an executive at Docutel, a Dallas company that developed automated baggage-handling equipment, is generally credited as coming up with the idea for the modern ATM. Wetzel reportedly conceived of the concept while waiting on line at a bank. The ATM that debuted in New York in 1969 was only able to give out cash, but in 1971, an ATM that could handle multiple functions, including providing customers' account balances, was introduced.

ATMs eventually expanded beyond the confines of banks and today can be found everywhere from gas stations to convenience stores to cruise ships. There is even an ATM at McMurdo Station in Antarctica. Non-banks lease the machines (so-called "off premise" ATMs) or own them outright.

Today there are well over 1 million ATMs around the world, with a new one added approximately every five minutes. It's estimated that more than 170 Americans over the age of 18 had an ATM card in 2005 and used it six to eight times a month. Not surprisingly, ATMs get their busiest workouts on Fridays.

from: ThisDayinHistory


Sandie from SC
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8/26/13 6:18 A

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August 26 - First televised major league baseball game emoticon

On this day in 1939, the first televised Major League baseball game is broadcast on station W2XBS, the station that was to become WNBC-TV. Announcer Red Barber called the game between the Cincinnati Reds and the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, New York. It's estimated that 3,000 people watched the game on TV. The Reds won the opening game of the doubleheader, 5-2. The Dodgers came back to take the second game 6-1.

Sandie from SC
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8/24/13 6:19 A

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August 24-25, 1814 - During the War of 1812, Washington, D.C., was invaded by British forces that burned the Capitol, the White House and most other public buildings along with a number of private homes. The burning was in retaliation for the earlier American burning of York (Toronto).

Sandie from SC
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August 23 - Fannie Farmer opens cooking school

On this day in 1902, pioneering cookbook author Fannie Farmer, who changed the way Americans prepare food by advocating the use of standardized measurements in recipes, opens Miss Farmer's School of Cookery in Boston. In addition to teaching women about cooking, Farmer later educated medical professionals about the importance of proper nutrition for the sick.

Farmer died January 15, 1915, at age 57. After Farmer's death, Alice Bradley, who taught at Miss Farmer's School of Cookery, took over the business and ran it until the mid-1940s. The Fannie Farmer Cookbook is still in print today.


Sandie from SC
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8/20/13 9:07 A

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emoticon emoticon emoticon emoticon emoticon emoticon emoticon emoticon

Aug 20, 1920: Professional football is born

On this day in 1920, seven men, including legendary all-around athlete and football star Jim Thorpe, meet to organize a professional football league at the Jordan and Hupmobile Auto Showroom in Canton, Ohio. The meeting led to the creation of the American Professional Football Conference (APFC), the forerunner to the hugely successful National Football League.

Professional football developed in the 1890s in Pennsylvania, as local athletic clubs engaged in increasingly intense competition. Former Yale football star William "Pudge" Heffelfinger became the first-ever professional football player when he was hired by the Allegheny Athletic Association to play in a game against their rival the Pittsburgh Athletic Club in November 1892. By 1896, the Allegheny Athletic Association was made up entirely of paid players, making it the sport’s first-ever professional team. As football became more and more popular, local semi-pro and pro teams were organized across the country.

Professional football first proved itself a viable spectator sport in the 1910s with the establishment of The Ohio League. Canton, the premiere team in the league, featured legendary decathlete and football star Jim Thorpe. From his play with the Carlisle School to his gold medal in the decathlon in Stockholm in 1912 and his time in the outfield with John McGraw’s New York Giants, Thorpe was an international star who brought legitimacy to professional football. The crowds that Thorpe and the Canton team drew created a market for professional football in Ohio and beyond. Still, the league was struggling due to escalating player salaries, a reliance on college players who then had to forfeit their college eligibility and a general lack of organization.

On August 20, 1920, the owners of four Ohio League teams--the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians and Dayton Triangles--met to form a new professional league. Jim Thorpe was nominated as president of the new league, as it was hoped Thorpe’s fame would help the league to be taken seriously. On September 17, the league met again, changing its short-lived name to the American Professional Football Association (APFA) and officially electing Jim Thorpe as the league’s first president.

The APFA began play on September 26, with the Rock Island Independents of Illinois defeating a team from outside the league, the St. Paul Ideals, 48-0. A week later, Dayton beat Columbus 14-0 in the first game between two teams from the APFA, the forerunner of the modern NFL

fromL History.com

Sandie from SC
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8/11/13 8:22 A

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This is long, but interesting...

Sunday, August 11, 2013
...---... DAY

The international distress call, SOS, which replaced CQD (All stations -- distress!), was first used by an American ship on this day in 1909. The ocean liner Arapahoe found itself in trouble off Cape Hatteras, NC. The ship’s wireless operator, T. D. Haubner, radioed for help when his ship lost its screw propeller near the ‘Graveyard of the Atlantic’,Diamond Shoals. The call was heard by the United Wireless station at Hatteras.

Contrary to popular opinion, SOS (which has no stops between the letters, the signal being a continuous signal of three dots, three dashes and three dots) is not an acronym for any series of words such as Save Our Ship or Save Our Souls. The original call for distress began with the British CQ, meaning “All Stations”, used by telegraph and cable operators worldwide. The D for’distress’ was added to CQ by the Marconi company in 1904.

In 1906, at the Berlin Radiotelegraphic Conference, the German’s general inquiry call, SOE, was suggested as an international distress signal. Changing the E to S gave the signal its unmistakeable character, and SOS was officially ratified as the international distress signal in 1908, although it was not officially adopted by the USA until 1912 (prompted by the Titanic tragedy). It is interesting to note that the Titanic’s radio operator sent Marconi’s CQD code several times before using the four-year-old international SOS signal some twenty minutes later ... as Marconi waited in NY to make the return trip to England on the ill-fated ship.

Globe Wireless, a Louisiana company, began operation that same year, as rules and regulations following the sinking of theTitanic included the requirement that all ships carry equipment capable of sending and receiving Morse code messages. On July 12, 1999, Globe Wireless broadcast its last Morse code message to ships, five months after Morse code was no longer an internationally acceptable form of communication for ships at sea. Globe’s was the last service of its kind in North America.

Morse code and its SOS signal began its demise in the 1960s as faster more efficient forms of transmission became available. Today, most ships use mobile phones, fax machines, and e-mail to communicate. The Global Maritime Distress and Safety system, which uses the satellite-based Global Positioning System, is now the internationally accepted manner in which to transmit a ship’s exact location and problem ... instantly.

In comparison, SOS and other Morse code transmissions which were the high tech methods of 1909, were “very slow, unreliable ... if you’re lucky, you can send 25 words a minute”, stated Globe Wireless Manager Karl Halvorsen. His and other similar companies around the world now provide the instant message services to ships that are used on land.

SOS ...---... Morse code is sinking.

from" Those WereTheDays


Sandie from SC
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