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IT*SNEVER2LATE's Photo IT*SNEVER2LATE Posts: 4,026
5/11/08 5:52 P

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COLCHICINE

This medication is used to treat gout. Colchicine, when used regularly, can help prevent a gout attack (e.g., gouty arthritis). Though not a true pain reliever, colchicine relieves the pain that occurs with a gout attack. It is believed to act by decreasing the amount of swelling in the affected joint.

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

This drug may also be used for other types of arthritis and certain liver conditions, and to prevent the aches and pains of a certain inherited disease (familial Mediterranean fever).

How to use Colchicine Oral
If your doctor has directed you to take this medication to treat gout pain when it occurs, take it exactly as directed. Colchicine controls gout pain best when you take it at the beginning of an attack. At the first sign of an attack, take 1 or 2 tablets by mouth as directed. Your doctor will tell you how soon you can take another dose, how long to wait between doses, and how many tablets you can take for each gout attack. Taking too much colchicine can lead to serious side effects. Never take more of this drug or take more doses than your doctor prescribes. Stop taking this medication when the pain is gone, when you have upset stomach/diarrhea, or when you reach the limit on the number of tablets you should take.

Unless your doctor directs you otherwise, do not take more than 3 or 4 tablets in the first 24 hours. Do not take more than 10 tablets for each gout attack. Do not take more than 5 tablets for each attack if you are elderly, if you weigh less than 110 pounds (50 kilograms), or if you have liver or kidney disease.

Tell your doctor if joint pain persists, if it worsens 12 hours after the beginning of the attack, or if it is not completely gone in 2 days.

If your doctor has directed you to use this drug to treat each gout attack when it occurs, you must wait at least 3 days after your last dose of this drug before using it again to treat the next attack. Talk to your doctor about other ways to relieve gout pain during the days when you cannot use this drug.

To prevent or lessen the number of gout attacks per year, your doctor may direct you to take colchicine on a regular schedule. Dosage will be based on your medical condition, the number of gout attacks you have each year, and your response to treatment. If your doctor directs you to take colchicine regularly, take it at the same time each day to help you remember.

Before you have any surgery (including dental surgery), your dose may need to be increased a few days in advance and remain increased until a few days after surgery. Ask your doctor for details


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IT*SNEVER2LATE's Photo IT*SNEVER2LATE Posts: 4,026
5/11/08 5:48 P

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ALLOPURINOL is a structural isomer of hypoxanthine (a naturally occurring purine in the body) and acts to inhibit xanthine oxidase. This enzyme is responsible for the successive oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine resulting in the production of uric acid, the product of human purine metabolism.[1] In addition to blocking uric acid production, inhibition of xanthine oxidase causes an increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine, which are converted to closely related purine ribotides adenosine and guanosine monophosphates. Increased levels of these ribotides causes feedback inhibition of amidophosphoribosyl transferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of purine biosynthesis. Allopurinol therefore decreases both uric acid formation and purine synthesis.


[edit] Uses (other than in treatment of gout)
In addition to its use in gout, allopurinol is also commonly used as prophylaxis with chemotherapeutic treatments, which can rapidly result in very high uric acid concentrations due to widespread cell death (tumour lysis syndrome). Other established indications for allopurinol therapy include ischaemic reperfusion injury, kidney stones (urolithiasis) and protozoal infections (Leishmaniasis).


[edit] Metabolism
Allopurinol is rapidly metabolized by its target, xanthine oxidase, to its active metabolite oxypurinol, which is also an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Allopurinol is almost completely metabolized to oxypurinol within two hours of oral administration, whereas oxypurinol is slowly excreted by the kidneys over 18-30 hours. For this reason, oxypurinol is believed to be responsible for the majority of allopurinol's effect.


[edit] Side effects
Side effects of allopurinol are rare, though significant when they occur. A small percentage of people develop a rash and must discontinue this drug. The most serious adverse effect is a hypersensitivity syndrome consisting of fever, skin rash, eosinophilia, hepatitis, worsening renal function and, in some cases, allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. Allopurinol is one of the drugs commonly known to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Syndrome (TENS) which is an adverse drug reaction


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