The "rules" are really pretty simple.
Rest your muscles 48 hours between ST sessions. While a split routine every day is technically possible, a full body workout every 2 days is the simpler and safer way to do it.
Do each rep in a slow and controlled manner. The idea is to make it as challenging as possible, not to bash out as many reps as you can.
There is no one "weight" to use. It is going to vary according to which muscles you are using - the thighs are the largest and strongest muscles in the body and you can likely leg press significantly more than 100 lbs, but for lateral raises (small muscles holding the weights away from your center of gravity) you may only be able to manage a handful of pounds. The key guide is to use a weight heavy enough to fatigue your muscles in 12 reps or less. (Fatigue means you feel you cannot do another rep with the correct form). Start small with the weights, and if you can do more than 12 reps, then go up one weight increment in your next ST session. Keep going up one weight increment per session until it is challenging enough that you can't complete 12 reps.
After a set of reps, rest for between 30 seconds and 5 minutes, then do another set (the shorter the break, the more likely it is that you will only be able to reach a smaller number of reps before reaching the point of fatigue). During this recovery time, some people do a set with a completely different muscle group before going back to do another set of the first exercise - this is known as 'supersetting' and is a time-efficient way to complete your workout.
There are competing theories on the number of sets, and I don't think any of them are necessarily wrong. But 2-3 sets is generally reckoned to be a pretty effective workout. More sets than that may give you slightly more benefits, but this is not necessarily an effective use of your time.
The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.
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