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BAM-BAM! (AKA BAM! Part II)

Saturday, October 26, 2013

Here are the remaining 11 studies. One thing that really stands out is how many of the conclusions point out the "less hunger" aspect of low carb.

13. Halyburton AK, et al. Low- and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets have similar effects on mood but not cognitive performance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2007.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 7.8 kg (17.2 lbs), while the low-fat group lost 6.4 kg (14.1 lbs). The difference was statistically significant.

Halyburton, et al. 2007.
Conclusion: The low-carb group lost more weight. Both groups had similar improvements in mood, but speed of processing (a measure of cognitive performance) improved further on the low-fat diet.

14. Dyson PA, et al. A low-carbohydrate diet is more effective in reducing body weight than healthy eating in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabetic Medicine, 2007.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 6.9 kg (15.2 lbs), compared to 2.1 kg (4.6 lbs) in the low-fat group.

Dyson, et al. 2007.
Conclusion: The low-carb group lost more weight (about 3 times as much). There was no difference in any other marker between groups.

15. Westman EC, et al. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrion & Metabolism (London), 2008.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost more weight (11.1 kg – 24.4 lbs) compared to the low-glycemic group (6.9 kg – 15.2 lbs).

Conclusion: The low-carb group lost significantly more weight than the low-glycemic group. There were several other important differences:

Hemoglobin A1c went down by 1.5% in the LC group, compared to 0.5% in the low-glycemic group.
HDL cholesterol increased in the LC group only, by 5.6 mg/dL.
Diabetes medications were either reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of the LC group, compared to 62% in the low-glycemic group.
Many other health markers like blood pressure and triglycerides improved in both groups, but the difference between groups was not statistically significant.

16. Shai I, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 2008.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 4.7 kg (10.4 lbs), the low-fat group lost 2.9 kg (6.4 lbs) and the Mediterranean diet group lost 4.4 kg (9.7 lbs).

Shai, et al. 2008.
Conclusion: The low-carb group lost more weight than the low-fat group and had greater improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides.

17. Keogh JB, et al. Effects of weight loss from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in subjects with abdominal obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 7.9% of body weight, compared to the low-fat group which lost 6.5% of body weight.

Conclusion: The low-carb group lost more weight and there was no difference between groups on Flow Mediated Dilation or any other markers of the function of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels). There was also no difference in common risk factors between groups.

18. Tay J, et al. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects. Journal of The American College of Cardiology, 2008.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost an average of 11.9 kg (26.2 lbs), while the low-fat group lost 10.1 kg (22.3 lbs). However, the difference was not statistically significant.

Tay, et al. 2008.
Conclusion: The low-carb group lost more weight. Triglycerides, HDL, C-Reactive Protein, Insulin, Insulin Sensitivity and Blood Pressure improved in both groups. Total and LDL cholesterol improved in the low-fat group only.

19. Volek JS, et al. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids, 2009.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 10.1 kg (22.3), while the low-fat group lost 5.2 kg (11.5 lbs).

Conclusion: The low-carb group lost almost twice the amount of weight as the low-fat group, despite eating the same amount of calories.

This study is particularly interesting because it matched calories between groups and measured so-called “advanced” lipid markers. Several things are worth noting:

Triglycerides went down by 107 mg/dL on LC, but 36 mg/dL on the LF diet.
HDL cholesterol increased by 4 mg/dL on LC, but went down by 1 mg/dL on LF.
Apolipoprotein B went down by 11 points on LC, but only 2 points on LF.
LDL size increased on LC, but stayed the same on LF.
On the LC diet, the LDL particles partly shifted from small to large (good), while they partly shifted from large to small on LF (bad).

20. Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 months. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2009.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 14.5 kg (32 lbs), while the low-fat group lost 11.5 kg (25.3 lbs) but the difference was not statistically significant.

Brinkworth, et al. 2009.
Conclusion: The low-carb group had greater decreases in triglycerides and greater increases in both HDL and LDL cholesterol, compared to the low-fat group.

21. Hernandez, et al. Lack of suppression of circulating free fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia during weight loss on a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 6.2 kg (13.7 lbs) while the low-fat group lost 6.0 kg (13.2 lbs). The difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The low-carb group had greater decreases in triglycerides (43.6 mg/dL) than the low-fat group (26.9 mg/dL). Both LDL and HDL decreased in the low-fat group only.

22. Krebs NF, et al. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, 2010.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost more weight and had greater decreases in BMI than the low-fat group.

Krebs, et al. 2010.
Conclusion: The low-carb group had greater reductions in BMI. Various biomarkers improved in both groups, but there was no significant difference between groups.

23. Guldbrand, et al. In type 2 diabetes, randomization to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss. Diabetologia, 2012.

Weight Loss: The low-carb group lost 3.1 kg (6.8 lbs), while the low-fat group lost 3.6 kg (7.9 lbs). The difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: There was no difference in weight loss or common risk factors between groups. There was significant improvement in glycemic control at 6 months for the low-carb group, but compliance was poor and the effects diminished at 24 months as individuals had increased their carb intake.
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  Member Comments About This Blog Post:

HOUNDLOVER1 11/3/2013 12:16AM

    Great! Now I just wish I had all day to read. emoticon
Looking forward to researching more.

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SKINNYINMYHEAD 10/26/2013 9:18PM

    alrighty then! LOL I do love some research though.. but regardless of what the research says, my experiment of one with Paleo has worked magnificently for me... Have you heard about the book "The Grain Brain"? I bought it but haven't read ti yet.. did hear the author on RobbWolf's podcast and it was brilliant!



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IAMBIZI 10/26/2013 7:43PM

    yes low carb diets can work if you work them right!
bizi

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BE-THE-CHANGE 10/26/2013 1:32PM

    Very timely blog for me, as I start once again today to get rid of processed carbs in my diet. I know I feel better when I don't eat them, but for me they are truly addictive. One slip and it's a very fast slide into carb hell again.

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