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Fitness Defined: Open and Closed Chain Exercises

By: , SparkPeople Blogger
10/3/2008 6:03 AM   :  77 comments

Most of you probably haven’t heard of open and closed chain exercises. But chances are, you do them all the time without even knowing it. It’s important to understand the difference between the two because one type is safer while the other can increase your risk of pain and injury. Do you know the difference?

The “chain” that these terms refer to is the kinetic chain of the body, which simply means that all of your bones and muscles are connected in a “chain” and therefore the movements you make are also part of a that kinetic chain.

Open Chain Exercises: Put simply, your hand or foot is free to move during an open chain exercise (like a chest press). These types of movements tend to isolate a single muscle group and a single joint. For example, the one joint involved during a leg extension is the knee and the muscle group it isolates is the quadriceps. Open chain exercises can be done with or without added weight, but when weight is added, it’s usually placed at the distal (far away) portion of the limb (like the ankle). Examples of open chain exercises include chest presses, biceps curls, leg curls, and leg extensions (with or without added weight).

Closed Chain Exercises: During these movements, your hands or feet are in a constant, fixed position (usually on the ground) during the exercise (such as pushups). Closed chain exercises work multiple joints and multiple muscle groups at once. For example, a squat involves the knee, hip and ankle joints, and multiple muscles groups (quads, hamstrings, hip flexors, calves and glutes). Closed chain exercises can be done with body weight alone or with added weight. When external weight is added, it is usually rested across the back of the shoulders or the front of the chest, which is considered much safer than the “distal” placement of weight during open chain exercises. Examples of closed chain exercises include pushups, pull-ups, squats, and lunges, all of which can be done with or without added weight.

So why does this matter?
In general, fitness experts, physical therapists, and athletic trainers agree that closed chain exercises are better for you. Here’s why:
  1. Closed chain exercises better mimic activities of daily living, which means they improve your “functional” fitness. They’re great for athletes, too, since sports require multiple joint and muscle movements to happen at once. Very few movements in real life or in athletics isolate joints and muscles like open chain exercises do.
  2. Closed chain exercises work many muscle groups at once. That’s great for the reasons above, but also because you can get more benefit in less time.
  3. Closed chain exercises are safer for your joints—especially the knee joint, which is very vulnerable to stress and injury. The force involved in closed chain exercises like lunges and squats is compressive, meaning it actually stabilizes the joint and helps strengthen it. In contrast, open chain exercises, like knee extensions or hamstring curls produce shear force, which stresses the knee joint (and the ACL) and is more likely to result in injury.

What does this mean for you?
If you suffer from joint pain or previous joint injury, you should try to avoid open chain exercises at that particular joint. So, if your knees are bad, do squats and lunges (closed chain exercises) instead of leg extensions or leg curls (open chain exercises). If you injured your elbow, do pushups (closed chain) instead of chest presses (open chain); if you have shoulder issues, try pull-ups in lieu of overhead presses, and so on.

In general, the knee joint is the most vulnerable joint in the entire body. So it’s a good idea to limit the amount of open chain exercises you do for the lower body—especially with heavy weights—to prevent problems from occurring in the first place.

Personally, I think this gives even more reason to vary your exercise program. I do both open and closed chain exercises, but I NEVER perform any open chain exercises for the lower body unless it involves little to no added weight. That means that I do not use machines for leg extensions or hamstring curls, because the added weight and the position of that weight (again, on the “distal” part of the leg) is risky for the already-vulnerable knee joint. Squats and lunges are some of the best exercises you can do anyway, so those are my go-to exercises for the lower body. Since the joints of the upper body aren’t as prone to injury as the knee is, I do both open and closed chain exercises, but I try to vary between the two on a regular basis.

How about you? Will you avoid open chain exercises now that you know the difference?


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Comments

  • 27
    I do alot of the lowwer body exercises that you speak of and I think it is great that your getting that word out cause it is so important coming from someone who was told I'd never walk again have not only walked with a helping device but I am now walking freely. By biulding the muscles above my knees I have strengthened them to the point where I use those to control my body as i have no feeling in my right leg from the knee down and only partial feeling in the left these exercises have given me a secongg chance at walking again. Balance will always be an issue and when I am tired r over worked i have to be careful of not falling because of the drop foot and no feeling it's easy to trip when you can't feel anything and your body is tired. I'll make it and I won't stop exercising both upper and lower has to be in my life for the reast of my life and there is no if and or buts'

    Chunk
    Calling all Goonies
    Team leader. - 10/3/2008   4:42:12 PM
  • 26
    Thanks for the important heads-up. From here on out, I will change my lower-body workout to closed-chain exercises. - 10/3/2008   4:26:42 PM
  • 25
    What a great article! I have never heard of open and closed chain exercises, but the distinction is definitely an important one for me, as I have some problems with my left knee. I love this blog! - 10/3/2008   3:08:46 PM
  • LNTRENS
    24
    I have knee problems as both of mine hurt if I go up stairs so thanks for the info,
    lntrens - 10/3/2008   2:22:57 PM
  • 23
    Great article. I had heard leg extensions were bad for the knees but never understood why. - 10/3/2008   2:14:12 PM
  • 22
    I had never thought about it that way before, time to shake it up a little. - 10/3/2008   1:45:07 PM
  • 21
    Great article!! It's amazing, I actually do more open chained exercised than closed chained...time to vary my program. - 10/3/2008   1:31:40 PM
  • 20
    I think it could be a good idea to put on the Exercise Demonstrations when one is open chain or when it is close chain. Maybe it sounds easy to find out, but it isnt for me.
    - 10/3/2008   1:20:15 PM
  • 19
    Thanks for the info I have had knee problems since I was 12. My knees are hiperextended, and they use to slip out of joint very easy, now I know when my legs are getting tired and I rest before that happens. - 10/3/2008   12:34:14 PM
  • MSTAMMY1
    18
    My knees are fine. I have had a hip replaced in 1996 when I was 39. My right hip needs to be replaced, but they are waiting until I'm older. Even though my hips are not "normal", I modify the exercises so that I can do them. - 10/3/2008   12:24:42 PM
  • 17
    My particular knee problem involve weak muscles in the center of my knees and elongated tendons. My physical therapist always had me doing biking, rollerblading and knee extensions to workout that muscle. It's interesting to hear that might also injure my knee. Maybe I'll have to make sure that I keep the weight low and don't do it too often...? - 10/3/2008   12:23:28 PM
  • 16
    I have a knee issue, and I'd heard before that leg extensions and curls were not good. And since I only exercise at home, I'm not tempted to use those fancy machines. I do like to do chest flies and chest presses, though, because I also have an elbow problem and pushups seem to exacerbate the problem, while my preferred 'open chain' exercises do not. I guess it depends on what your particular problem involves. Anyway--I found this to be a very informative article. - 10/3/2008   11:39:55 AM
  • ESPERANZABELLA
    15
    Thanks a lot for this article! I will be avoiding lower body open chain exercises from now on since I have been experiencing a little bit of knee pain lately. - 10/3/2008   11:38:24 AM
  • 14
    GOOD article. It will help me in considering some changes to my strength training.

    I like to use a rowing machine... so I think you would consider this a closed chain exercise? I alternate it with the stair/step master, the eliptic machine and tread mill (stationary biking bores me). Any advantages or disadvantages to one machine over the other and are they all considered closed chain? And is this a good way to warm up before doing any open chain exercises? Am I correct to assume that most free weight exercises would be considered open chain? - 10/3/2008   11:38:13 AM
  • 13
    Good to know and perfect timing for me. I am getting ready to set up my off season strenght program. Thanks - 10/3/2008   11:15:11 AM
  • 12
    Thanks I never have heard that mentioned before. That is v helpful info for my knee. Tks again! - 10/3/2008   10:52:14 AM
  • 11
    I think I naturally tend towards closed chain exercises (especially since all my strength training is done at home, mostly on the stability ball), but thanks for the heads up. It's helpful to think about! - 10/3/2008   9:28:22 AM
  • SARAGWYNE
    10
    More reason to keep practicing yoga! - 10/3/2008   9:23:26 AM
  • 9
    Very useful to know, thanks! - 10/3/2008   9:17:26 AM
  • 8
    ORLANDOJOANN-
    Open and closed chain exercises refer to body movements such as strength training exercises. Running (cardio) is a different type of full-body movement. It would be considered high-impact on the joints and it does stress the joints, including the knees, more than low-impact exercises (like walking, swimming or using the elliptical trainer). However, one thing to consider is that higher impact exercises also better strengthen your bones, so it's a good idea for most people to do a little of both high- and low-impact exercises.

    Coach Nicole - 10/3/2008   8:35:57 AM
  • 7
    Funny because last night I was at the gym and got off the leg curls machine because my knees were hurting me. Great article!

    Is running considered a closed chain exercise? - 10/3/2008   8:28:30 AM
  • 6
    Great info, I am going to have to watch the way I exercise since in have a knee that gives my problems from time to time. - 10/3/2008   7:27:23 AM
  • MJS505
    5
    I have knee and ankle issues so I've never done open chain exercises for my lower body. At that time I didn't know they were called open chain exercises, I just knew it put to much pressure on those joints. - 10/3/2008   7:04:27 AM
  • 4
    I have problems with both knees, one of which needs to be replaced. This is good information for me, since I don't want to further damage my "good knee" and end up having to have it replaced too. - 10/3/2008   6:46:48 AM
  • 3
    Good article. I do a few open chain exercises such as leg extensions but I don't use much weight. It is good info to know and now I will be more aware of it when I do those exercises. - 10/3/2008   6:37:47 AM
  • 2
    This is an excellent blog - what I especially like is that it gives an easy way to think about which exercises may overstress a joint! Thanks, Coach Nicole. - 10/3/2008   6:11:51 AM

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